UPSC Daily Prelims General Studies Quiz – 11

1. A rabbit is swallowed by a snake, which in turn by a falcon. What is the position of snake in this food chain?
[A] Producer
[B] Primary Consumer
[C] Secondary consumer
[D] Tertiary Consumer
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[C] Secondary consumer
Third option is the correct answer

2. A rainforest once destroyed is almost impossible to recover. What is / are reasons of such problem?
1. The soil in the tropical rain forest floor is devoid of nutrition
2. The tropical rainforests cannot regenerate under many current land-use practices
3. The tropical rainforests thrive in natural conditions under internal complexity and interdependence
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:
[A] Only 1 & 2
[B] Only 2 & 3
[C] Only 1 & 3
[D] 1, 2 & 3
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[D] 1, 2 & 3
A rainforest cannot be replaced. Once it is destroyed it is gone forever (almost thousands of years). Here are a few observations:
Nutrient Deficient Soil
Only the top few inches of rainforest soil have any nutrients. Below that it is deficient in nutrients. There is a high temperature and this high temperature leads to decomposition of the organic material as well as the inorganic parent material of the soil. There are frequent rains and these rains leach the decomposing material off the soil, out of the root zone quickly. So, the result is that the Tropical rain Forests have adapted themselves and quickly take up the nutrients and most nutrients in the tropical rain forests is stored in the vegetation. When the forest is harvested for timber or other plant products, or the forest is burned, nutrients will be lost from the ecosystem, but the outputs cannot exceed inputs for very long because the stock of nutrient capital in the system will be depleted. When forests are burned, or the cut timber is removed as in logging, the nutrients that were in the tree biomass are either washed out in the case of burning or simply removed from the system. Because there was only a small stock of nutrients in the soil and most of the nutrients were in the biomass, there is little nutrient stock remaining to support regrowth. Thus, we can’t simply “regrow” tropical forests once they are burned — once they are lost they are gone forever (or at least for 1000s of years, and even then the species that regrow will be different from the original forest species).
Internal Complexity
Although tropical rainforests can regrow under natural conditions, where clearings are caused by floods, storms, or treefalls, they cannot regenerate under many current land-use practices. Forests regenerate poorly if at all when large areas are logged, the soil is damaged or removed, or erosion is severe. Rainforest ecosystems are vulnerable to disruption because of their internal complexity and interdependence. Because there are few individuals of any one species, removal of even small numbers of them has a substantial effect on species composition and interrelationships in the forest by depressing reproduction, and long periods of time will be required to reconstruct viable populations. Forests are also dependent upon their closed nutrient cycles; disruption of these cycles by exposure and extraction of trees can cause their destruction. If the land has been cleared for a long period of time, reforestation occurs slowly or not at all, due to the lack of suitable seeds and seedlings, increased ground temperatures, decreased humidity, and the like.

3. A recent study claimed that the red tide or algal bloom causes respiratory impairment in humans and affects marine life adversely. Which of the following would lead to increased algal blooms?

  1. Discharge of phosphorus-containing sewage in oceans
  2. Mixing of warm and cold water currents in oceans
  3. Increased salt amount in water

Select the correct option from the codes given below:
[A] Only 1
[B] Only 1 & 2
[C] Only 2 & 3
[D] 1, 2 & 3
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[B] Only 1 & 2
First two statements are correct because both would increase nutrient supply resulting in growth of algal bloom. Third statement is incorrect because algae become stressed and die when they deplete the nutrient supply or move from freshwater into saltier waters.  Algae are referred to large seaweeds which grow in water with large nutrients added through different sources. When algal blooms block vital sunlight from reaching beneficial underwater plants that provide food and a place to live and grow for fish and other animals, the ecosystem can be negatively impacted. Further, algae when dead; their decay requires large oxygen; thus increasing the Biological Oxygen Demand of water and killing many marine animals.

4. A retired judge of the high court of India can work as an advocate in:
1. Any other high court from which he has retired
2. Supreme Court of India
3. Lower Courts in any state
4. Lower Courts of the same state
Choose the correct option from the codes given below:
[A] Only 2
[B] Only 1 & 2
[C] Only 1, 2 & 3
[D] 1, 2, 3 & 4
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[B] Only 1 & 2

5. A rise in SENSEX in India indicates which of the following?
[A] There is a rise in the prices of shares of all companies registered with Bombay Stock exchange
[B] There is a rise in the prices of shares of all companies registered with National Stock Exchange
[C] There is an overall rise in the prices of a group of shares in BSE
[D] There is an overall rise in the prices of a group of shares in NSE
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[C] There is an overall rise in the prices of a group of shares in BSE
A share market Index shows how a specified portfolio of share prices is moving in order to give an indication of market trends. The BSE SENSEX is a free-float market capitalization-weighted stock market index of 30 well-established and financially sound companies listed on Bombay Stock Exchange.

6. A rough sea can be calmed by pouring oil on its surface because __:
[A] The oil increases the surface tension of water
[B] The surface tension of the oil film absorbs energy of waves
[C] The winds creating waves are blocked by the oil film
[D] None of the reasons mentioned in A, B and C
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[B] The surface tension of the oil film absorbs energy of waves
When the waves go underneath the film, the surface tension of the oil film makes them to lose some of the energy.

7. A State Finance Commission in India:
1. is appointed by Governor of respective state
2. can be appointed every five years or earlier than five years also if the Governor thinks it fit
3. consists of members appointed as per eligibility criteria mentioned in Constitution of India
Select the correct statements from the codes given below:
[A] Only 1 & 2
[B] Only 2 & 3
[C] Only 1
[D] 1, 2 & 3
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[C] Only 1
The second statement is not correct because as per article 243I, within One Year from the commencement of Constitution 73rd amendment act, (This means April 24, 1993) and afterwards every 5 years , the State Government would appoint a finance commission. We note here that 12th Finance Commission had recommended an amendment of the Constitution and put the phrase “at such earlier time” after the words “every fifth year”. The Third statement is also incorrect. There is no eligibility criteria fixed in constitution. Here also, 12th FC made recommendation that each State should prescribe through an Act, the qualifications of persons eligible to be appointed as Members of the State Finance Commission.

8. A term “stocks” was in news with reference to the climate change negotiations. What does “stocks “mean in this regard?
[A] Cumulative Forest and Biodiversity resources of a country
[B] Cumulative Forest and Biodiversity resources of entire earth
[C] Emissions accumulated in the atmosphere so far
[D] Semi-discrete subpopulations of a particular species in an ecosystem
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[C] Emissions accumulated in the atmosphere so far
Stocks refer to the emissions accumulated in the atmosphere so far.

9. A tourist in Mumbai observes high tide near Gateway of India at 7. 00 AM. At what time, he should expect another high tide on the same day?
[A] 7. 00 PM
[B] 7. 25 PM
[C] 7. 40 PM
[D] 8. 50 PM
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[B] 7. 25 PM
Most coastal areas experience two high and two low tides per day. One of these high tides is at the point on the earth which is closest to the moon (sub lunar) and other high tide is at the opposite point on the earth (antipodal). One tidal cycle comprises two high tides and two low tides. One tidal cycle completes in 24 hours and 50. 4 minutes. This is because of the revolution of Moon around the earth and both earth’s rotation and moon revolution are in same direction. (Moon is not stationary, so there is a difference, if moon were stationary the high tides would have occurred exactly in 12 hours). The high tides occur at an interval of 12 hours and 25. 2 minutes. This means that if there is a high tide is at 7. 00 am, next high tide would be at 7. 25 pm and next would be at 7. 50 am, and so on. The time difference between two high tides is called “Tidal Interval”. The tidal cycle in this pattern is called semidiurnal. However, most of the enclosed water bodies or away from the open ocean such as Caribbean Sea or Caspian Sea, there are only one high tide and one low tide. This pattern is called Diurnal tides. At the coast of the oceans, there may be two high tides, of unequal length. This is called Mixed Tides.

10. A transaction between two subsidiaries of the same parent organization could only be said to be at "arm’s length" if it could be shown that __:
[A] Subsidiary was given some kind of preference
[B] Subsidiary was kept at par with unrelated companies
[C] Subsidiary was created only for the transaction to be completed
[D] Subsidiary and Parent organizations share the employees
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[B] Subsidiary was kept at par with unrelated companies
Arm's length denotes a transaction in which the parties to the transaction are or behave as if they are unrelated parties. For example, a transaction between two subsidiaries of the same parent organization could only be said to be at arm’s length if it could be shown that the deal had been carried out at current market prices with no preference of any kind being shown in the trading terms.

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