Elephant Bonds

Elephant Bonds is a class of proposed debt instruments in India. The proposal to launch Elephant Bonds was made by government of India appointed Surjit Bhalla Committee on Trade and Policy in July, 2019. Elephant Bonds are one among other the key recommendations of the Surjit Bhalla Committee. Proposed Features An Elephant Bond is a ..


New Metro Rail Policy: Salient Features and Issues with PPP

On 16 August, the Union Cabinet has approved a new Metro Rail Policy which seeks to enable realization of growing metro rail operations in large number of cities in a responsible way. Salient Features The salient features of this policy are as follows: It opens a big window for private investments in metro operations by ..

Port Efficiency: Meaning and Issues around Port Efficiency in India

A port works not only as a node in the entire transportation network but also as an economic unit that provides a transfer service. In competitive environment, the ports not only compete on the basis of this service amount called “throughput” but also on their location and operational efficiency. Apart from the throughput, the two ..

Dynamic Pricing in Indian Railways: Concept & Issues

In the month of September, 2016, the Indian Railways came out with the policy of Dynamic Pricing. Under this policy, the fares of the railway tickets are to increase by 10 per cent after every 10 per cent of berths or seats being sold. But a cap of 50 per cent has been put on ..

Transshipment Ports: India’s Aspirations, Efforts and Issues

Transshipment refers shipment of containers to an intermediate destination for loading to other ships bound to other destination. It is a normal part of international business and is done every day to change the means of transport in multimodal transport and consolidate smaller shipments into a large shipment or vice versa. The container transshipment terminal ..