Major Biomes of the World

Biomes are distinct biological communities formed in response to a shared climate. They are typically categorized by factors such as plant structures, leaf types, plant spacing, and climate. The major Biomes on Earth are as follows:

Tundra Biome

The tundra biome is characterized by very cold temperatures, low precipitation, poor nutrient soil, short growing seasons, and limited biodiversity. Vegetation consists of lichen, moss, sedges, and dwarf shrubs. Animals include reindeer, musk oxen, arctic hares, caribou, lemmings, and squirrels.

Taiga Biome

The taiga or boreal forest biome has cold winters, warm summers, and moderate precipitation. Long and severe winters restrict the growing season in this biome. The vegetation is dominated by coniferous evergreen trees like spruce, fir and pine along with animals such as lynx, wolves, bears, foxes, porcupines, and squirrels.

Tropical Rainforest

Tropical rainforests near the equator have very high rainfall distributed throughout the year. They have remarkable biodiversity in plant and animal species. Multi-layered vegetation includes tall canopy trees, shorter understory trees, shrubs, vines, ferns, and epiphytes. Soils are nutrient-poor latosols.

Tropical Monsoon Forests

Tropical monsoon forests have very high annual rainfall concentrated in monsoon periods alternating with pronounced dry seasons. Forests consist of broadleaf deciduous trees adapted to withstanding seasonal droughts. They occur in India, Southeast Asia, and other tropical regions.

Temperate Rainforests

Temperate rainforests have high rainfall, fog, and mild winters and summers. They occur along some coastal regions and have greater biodiversity compared to other temperate forests. Trees include redwoods, spruces, firs, and hemlocks.

Tropical & Temperate Deciduous Forests

Deciduous forests have trees that lose their leaves in autumn and remain bare in the winter months. Temperate deciduous forests include oaks, maples, beeches, ashes, birches, elms etc. Tropical deciduous forests have trees like teak and sal that are drought-resistant.

Savannah Biome

The savannah is a tropical or subtropical grassland with scattered shrubs and trees. Savannas have a distinct dry season Alternating with a wet summer season. Large herbivorous mammals thrive in this biome. Frequent fires are important in maintaining the grassland ecosystem.

Temperate Grasslands

Temperate grasslands have hot summers and cold winters with moderate rainfall. Grasses and herbaceous plants dominate the landscape. Grazing mammals like bison, antelopes, prairie dogs, and burrowing owls inhabit this biome. Fertile dark soil makes it suitable for agriculture.

Mediterranean Shrublands (Chapparal)

Mediterranean shrublands occur in regions with hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Vegetation consists of chaparral shrubs, oak, pine, cypress and herbs. Adaptations like drought tolerance and regenerating after fires are seen.

Desert Biome

Extremely low rainfall defines deserts located in central Asia, Sahara, central and southwest North America. High summer temperature extreme diurnal ranges, sparse vegetation of cacti, thorny bushes and shrubs, are typical of this biome. Animals like reptiles and desert birds are well-adapted to the harsh conditions.

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