Ramsar Sites in India (2023)

As of 2023, India is home to 75 Ramsar wetlands, recognized for their ecological significance under the Ramsar Convention.

Andhra Pradesh (1 Site)

Kolleru Lake

Kolleru Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India and the largest shallow freshwater lake in Asia, covering an area of 245 square kilometers. The lake was designated as a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on August 19, 2002, highlighting its ecological significance.

Kolleru Lake is a major habitat for an estimated 20 million resident and migratory birds, including species like the Siberian crane, ibis, and painted storks. The lake is situated between the Krishna and Godavari deltas in Andhra Pradesh and is fed by the seasonal Budameru and Tammileru streams.

Satellite images revealed that a significant portion of the lake was occupied by aquaculture and agriculture, impacting its water quality and ecological diversity​.

Assam (1 Site)

Deepor Beel

Deepor Beel is a permanent freshwater lake formed in an old channel of the Brahmaputra River. It spans 4,014 hectares and has a maximum depth of 4 meters. The lake supports a rich diversity of flora and fauna. It is home to 219 bird species, including more than 70 migratory ones, making it a critical habitat for various bird species, including some globally threatened ones.

Approximately 1,200 families from 14 indigenous villages rely on the lake’s natural resources, particularly fishing, for their livelihood. The lake acts as a natural stormwater reservoir for Guwahati city during the monsoon and supports a variety of aquatic and land fauna, including over 50 species of fish and a variety of amphibians, reptiles, and large mammals like elephants and leopards.

Despite its ecological significance, the lake faces threats from urbanization and pollution. Efforts are underway to restore and preserve its natural state, including comprehensive management plans and community conservation projects.

Bihar (1 Site)

Kanwar Taal or Kabar Taal Lake

Kanwar Taal, also known as Kabar Taal Lake or Kabartal Wetland, is in the Begusarai district of Bihar. Spanning 26.2 sq km, Asia’s largest freshwater oxbow lake regularly floods during monsoons, allowing seasonal agriculture on exposed land. This diverse wetland ecosystem harbors 165 plant and 394 animal species, including 58 migratory birds.

Designated Ramsar site supports 5 critically endangered species and plays a vital flood absorption role in flood-prone Bihar, with marshlands used for agriculture in dry seasons.

Goa (1 Site)

Nanda Lake

Nanda Lake is the freshwater marshes, located adjacent to one of rivulets of Zuari river in Goa.

Nanda Lake was designated as a Ramsar wetland site on August 8, 2022, making it the first and only Ramsar site in Goa. The government recognized it as a wetland under the Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017, in 2021. It helps the locals to store water in off-monsoon season. Stored water is used to cultivate paddy downstream of this lake. It is home to Black-headed ibis, Wire-tailed swallow, Common kingfisher, Brahminy kite and Bronze-winged jacana.

Gujarat (4 Sites)

Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary

Nalsarovar is a 120 sq km natural freshwater lake and wetland in the Thar Desert. It provides important habitat for 210 bird species that use it as a migratory stopover site. Vulnerable and critically endangered species have been recorded here. It also supports an endangered Indian wild ass subspecies. Local communities rely on it for drinking water, irrigation and fishing. Major threats come from tourism, water pollution and climate change impacts.

Sambhar Lake

As India’s largest inland salt lake spanning 240 sq km, Sambhar Lake is a key wintering site for tens of thousands of migrating flamingos and other birds traveling down the Central Asian Flyway. Its specialized microbes and algae create vivid water hues and sustain diversity of fish and birds. Nearby dry forests support nilgai, deer and foxes. Major concerns are water abstraction and pollution.

Thol Lake

Thol is a 6.99 sq km freshwater reservoir lake declared a sanctuary in 1988 to protect biodiversity. It provides dry season habitat for blackbuck, reptiles and over 320 bird species, including over 30 threatened migratory waterfowl that take refuge here. Additional threats come from tourism overuse and climate change, requiring habitat restoration initiatives.

Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary

A specialized 5.12 sq km complex of fresh and saltwater marshes and lakes within the Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Its unique combination of marine and inland wetland environment makes it a critical refuge and breeding site for about 300 migratory bird species that travel along the Central Asian Flyway route.

Haryana (2 Sites)

Sultanpur National Park

Spanning 1.43 sq km areas of shallow lake and grasslands, Sultanpur provides critical migratory bird habitat within Haryana for over 100 species visiting annually from as far as Siberia. Originally a state sanctuary, it became a National Park in 1991. Facing degradation from factors like increasing pollution and infrastructure expansion around its buffer zone, its protection status aids conservation focus.

Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary

Bhindawas constitutes a 4.11 sq km human-made freshwater wetland within the floodplain of Ganges River tributaries. It is the largest wetland in Haryana, notified as a bird sanctuary by the Government of India in 2009. Supporting over 250 bird species including globally threatened varieties, major concerns comprise hydrological changes, and habitat fragmentation from expanding agriculture.

Himachal Pradesh (3 Sites)

Chandra Taal

Chandra Taal is a high altitude (4,337 m) Himalayan lake near the Kunzam Pass in Himachal Pradesh. The cold, arid climate supports snow leopards, snowcocks, chukor birds and other high altitude wildlife adapted to thrive here. About 65% of the catchment area is degraded due to overgrazing by nomadic herders. Threats also come from summer trekking, waste littering, and lack of sanitation facilities.

Renuka Lake

Renuka is a 0.2 sq km natural Himachal Pradesh wetland surrounded by forests, fed by Himalayan streams. Its unique ecology harbors 443 fauna species like otters, carp fish and 103 birds including herons, storks and lapwings. It faces threats from silt influx from deforestation and expanding agriculture causing loss of replenishing springs. The lake holds religious significance as site of an annual Hindu festival.

Pong Dam Lake

Created in 1975 by damming the Beas River, this 156 sq km reservoir hosts over 220 resident and migratory bird species due its location on the trans-Himalayan flyway. It provides flood control, electricity, irrigation water, fisheries employment and aids local groundwater recharge. Management has shifted from restrictions to participation by surrounding communities in ecotourism.

Jammu and Kashmir (5 Sites)

Hokera Wetland

Hokera is a 13.75 sq km freshwater wetland near Srinagar, part of the Jhelum Basin. Its remaining reedbeds provide habitat for 68 migratory waterfowl species that come from as far as Siberia and Europe. It is a spawning and nursery site for fishes and waterbirds. Threats include housing development, litter and increasing demand for recreation facilities.

Surinsar-Mansar Lakes

A 3.5 sq km freshwater lake complex near Jammu City, connected to the Jhelum Basin. Supporting turtle and fish species, these sacred lakes have mythological origins associating them to the Devas and Asuras. The wetland vegetation provides food and its habitats host over 100 bird species. Threats include agricultural runoff and contamination from rituals.

Wular Lake

Wular is a 189 sq km freshwater lake, the largest in India. Providing habitat for waterbirds, fish and agriculture, it sustains local livelihoods through key fisheries and tourism revenue. Concerns necessitating conservation action include shoreline encroachment, soil erosion, pollution from houseboat sewage and detrimental water level fluctuations.

Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve

At 8 sq km, the Hygam wetland encompasses marshes and reservoirs near the Sangrama River in Baramulla district. Adjoining paddy cultivation zones and orchards, its environs serve as staging habitat for migratory birds favoring its ecology – 112 species documented so far. Conservation focuses on habitat enrichments to augment its biodiversity.

Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve

Encompassing about 17 sq km shallow wetland area, Shallbugh is located in the Kashmir Basin near Srinagar city. Formed from a network of marshy lakes and flood spill channels, it transforms into key feeding and breeding habitat for thousands of aquatic birds – 178 species recorded – arriving here during migrations.

Karnataka (1 Site)

Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary

Spanning 5.18 sq km, Ranganathittu sanctuary encompasses ecologically vital riverine islands and wetlands within the Kaveri river system of Karnataka state. Providing habitat to endangered mugger crocodiles, fish and nesting waterbirds, including large congregations of migratory storks and pelicans, focus involves habitat improvements and sustainable tourism infrastructure.

Kerala (3 Sites)

Ashtamudi Wetland

Ashtamudi is a 61.4 sq km natural backwater lake in Kollam district of Kerala. It is fed by the Kallada and Pallichal rivers which drain into it and forms an estuary with the sea at Neendakara fishing harbor. The lake supports a diversity of fish species and is known for the tasty karimeen fish found here. National Waterway 3 passes through the lake. It faces threats from destruction of its natural replenishing system due to clay and sand mining.

Sasthamkotta Lake

Sasthamkotta is a 3.73 sq km freshwater lake in Kerala, the state’s largest. Fed by rainwater and a river, it used an intricate replenishing system through wet paddy fields which is now non-functional due to mining, causing lake depletion. The lake supports the endangered ritza, an endemic fish considered sacred. Pollution sources include fertilizers and pesticides from agriculture.

Vembanad-Kol Wetland

Spread over 1,512.5 sq km across three Kerala districts, Vembanad-Kol dominates as the state’s largest lake system. Fed by rivers, it is a sanctuary for fish and waterbirds. Tourism thrives around renowned houseboat locales, while parts of this Ramsar wetland lie below sea level, sustaining exotic crops like rice. Changes in salinity levels poses risks requiring conservation focus.

Ladakh (2 Sites)


Tsomoriri is a 120 sq km high altitude (4,595 m) lake regarded sacred by locals for its pristine landscapes. Fed solely by snowmelt, it represents prime habitat for endangered migratory Black-necked cranes and breeding Bar-headed geese. Nearby grasslands support endangered Tibetan asses and sheep. Increasing tourism poses risks but also economic promise for local communities.

Madhya Pradesh (4 Sites)

Bhoj Wetland

The Bhoj Wetland is a 32 sq km wetland in Bhopal comprised of the Upper and Lower Lakes. Designated a Ramsar site in 2002, it harbors over 20,000 birds including migratory species. The Upper Lake provides 40% of Bhopal’s drinking water. Conservation issues include water shortage, invasive plant growth of Paspalum distichum, and pollution.

Sakhya Sagar

Sakhya Sagar is a 2.48 sq km prominent lake situated within Madhav National Park in Madhya Pradesh. Its lakeside forests and grassland habitats support populations of leopards as well as migratory waterbirds ranging from storks to cranes that use it as nesting areas or temporary stopovers. Efforts are focused on visitor management and waste control.

Sirpur Lake

Sirpur Lake is a 1.61 sq km human-made freshwater reservoir and wetland habitat within Madhya Pradesh’s Indore district. In addition to sustaining varieties of terrestrial flora, it supports diverse resident aquatic wildlife ranging from fish, turtles, snakes to marsh crocodiles favoring its ecology. Bird species inhabiting it range from darters to cormorants and herons.

Yashwant Sagar

An expansive 8.23 sq km reservoir situated within a designated conservation reserve in Mandsaur district. Its strategic location on the Central Asian Flyway makes it vital nesting and feeding habitat for threatened migratory birds like Dalmatian pelicans, painted storks, white ibises and more. Conservation focuses on shoreline reforestation to enrich food availability.

Maharashtra (3 Sites)

Lonar Lake (Maharashtra)

A 4.27 sq km saline, alkaline lake created by a meteorite impact crater in basaltic bedrock around 50,000 years ago. It is a National Geological Monument noted for its size, biodiversity and temples around the periphery. Supporting vulnerable bird species and other wildlife like grey wolves, the lake’s basin geology and salt-loving microbes producing red pigmented water makes it a scientific phenomenon. Factors like water quality changes call for stewardship focus.

Nandur Madhameshwar

A 14 sq km mosaic of lake and marsh habitats on the Godavari River floodplain. The site harbors highly threatened species like the Deolali minnow, Indian vulture and white-rumped vulture. Construction of a weir helped create productive wetland, providing flood buffering downstream and assisting regional groundwater recharge. Challenges include invasive species and growing urbanization.

Thane Creek

A 65 sq km area, Thane Creek represents a funnel-shaped tidal estuary dotted by mangrove creeks and mudflats, where the Ulhas River drains into the Arabian Sea. Home to 150 bird species and 27 mangrove species, it serves as a key staging and wintering habitat for thousands of Flamingoes and other aquatic birds arriving via the Central Asian Flyway.

Manipur (1 Site)

Loktak Lake

Loktak is a 266 sq km freshwater lake renowned for phumdis (heterogenous floating vegetation masses). Keibul Lamjao National Park located here is the world’s only floating park, habitat for the endangered Manipur brow-antlered deer. Threatened bird species migrate from Siberia, central and southeast Asia. Human activities like boating and infrastructure development pose disturbance threats.

Mizoram (1 Site)

Pala Wetland

At 18.5 sq km, Pala constitutes the largest natural wetland ecosystem within the state of Mizoram in northeastern India. Surrounded by lush green forests, this freshwater marshland lake supports diverse resident wildlife species ranging from birds, fish and snakes to medicinal plants. Conservation efforts are focused on habitat restoration from encroachments.

Odisha (6 Sites)

Bhitarkanika Mangroves

The Bhitarkanika Mangroves is a 650 sq km coastal wetland comprising the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park. Designated a Ramsar wetland in 2002, it is home to saltwater crocodiles, olive ridley sea turtles and other wildlife. The mangroves face threats from collection of firewood and fruits, spread of invasive plants like Chilean mesquite, decreasing inflow of freshwater due to expansion of salt works, and more.

Chilika Lake

Chilika is a 1,165 sq km brackish water lagoon, India’s largest coastal lagoon. Situated between the deltas of the Daya and Mahanadi rivers, it is designated a Ramsar site. During peak migratory season, it hosts over 160 bird species coming from as far as Russia, Mongolia and more via the Central Asian Flyway. It also has Irrawaddy dolphins, the lake’s flagship species. Major threats are decreasing inflow of freshwater and infestation by invasive water hyacinth.

Satkosia Gorge

Satkosia Gorge comprises a 982 sq km landscape mosaic including the Satkosia Tiger Reserve and the gorge carved out by the Mahanadi River in Odisha. Designated a UNESCO biosphere reserve in 2021, it aims to balance biodiversity goals with sustainable livelihood needs of over 50 surrounding villages that depend on wetland ecosystems and resources.

Hirakud Reservoir

Formed behind the Hirakud Dam across the Mahanadi River, this 743 sq km reservoir constitutes one of India’s longest dams and the largest artificial lake within Odisha. In addition to flood control and hydroelectricity supply, it provides habitat for numerous resident and migratory birds favoring its environs. Efforts are focused on improving vegetative cover and reservoir fisheries.

Ansupa Lake

Ansupa constitutes a tiny 2.31 hectare wetland lake within Odisha differentiated by its circular shape and deep pockets up to 10 feet amidst shallow margins. Fed by neighboring streams and rainfall, it transforms into ideal staging habitat for arriving migratory birds – 106 species documented so far. Community efforts seek to augment conservation by reviving five satellite water bodies.

Tampara Lake

A tiny 3 hectare irrigation reservoir situated in Ganjam district of Odisha, Tampara Lake transforms into a temporary wetland sanctuary for arriving migratory birds favoring its ecology. They range from pintails, shovellers and pochards to threatened Dalmatian pelicans that use it as staging habitat. Neighbouring granite mines pose contamination risks from leaching.

Punjab (6 Sites)

Beas Conservation Reserve

The Beas Conservation Reserve is a 185 km stretch of the Beas River from the Himalayan foothills to the Harike Headworks. The river environment has islands, sand bars and braided channels supporting over 500 bird species and 90 fish species. It hosts the only known population in India of the endangered Indus River dolphin. Other threatened species present include the endangered mahseer fish and hog deer. Major threats come from urban and domestic pollution and agricultural impacts along most of the river’s course.

Harike Wetland

Harike is a 41 sq km shallow water reservoir at the confluence of two rivers. It is an important site for over 200,000 migratory Anatidae birds for breeding, wintering and staging due to its location on the trans-Himalayan flyway. It supports local fisheries production and provides irrigation water. Potential threats come from drainage and water abstraction.

Kanjli Wetland

Kanjli is a 1.83 sq km permanent wetland formed by construction of a barrage on the Kali Bein stream in 1870. It supports aquatic, mesophytic and terrestrial flora and fauna, playing a vital groundwater recharge role. By providing irrigation water, it sustains surrounding fertile agricultural plains. Threats come from invasive species like water hyacinth and pollution. As the stream relates to the first Sikh guru, it has religious significance.

Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve

This 3.44 sq km mosaic wetland has natural marshes, aquaculture ponds and agricultural wetlands maintained by rainfall runoff. Community management for fisheries and crop cultivation aids wetland biodiversity, supporting threatened species like the vulnerable common pochard. Invasive species and road/railway development pose threats

Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary

A 1.16 sq km reservoir on the Sutlej River that supports the endangered Indian pangolin and Egyptian vulture among other threatened species. Created in 1961 for hydropower and irrigation supply benefiting half a million downstream residents, the sanctuary also holds historic significance. Major concerns include agricultural runoff and overfishing.

Ropar Wetland

A 13.65 sq km human-made reservoir and river wetland ecosystem formed from a Sutlej River barrage built in 1952. Providing habitat for threatened smooth-coated otters, hog deer and other mammals, over 50 fish species thrive here supporting significant local fisheries revenue. Concerns are from industrial pollution, invasive weeds like water hyacinth and climate change.

Rajasthan (2 Sites)

Keoladeo National Park

A complex of 10 artificial, seasonal lagoons and adjacent habitat mosaic spanning 28.73 sq km. It provides habitat for over 500 species including migratory birds, ungulates, cats and primates. Placed on the Montreux Record in 1990 due to water shortage and unbalanced grazing regime, it also faces invasive species encroachment reducing suitability for some waterbirds.

Sambhar Lake

As India’s largest inland salt lake spanning 240 sq km, Sambhar Lake is a key wintering site for tens of thousands of migrating flamingos and other birds traveling down the Central Asian Flyway. Its specialized microbes and algae create vivid water hues and sustain diversity of fish and birds. Nearby dry forests support nilgai, deer and foxes. Major concerns are water abstraction and pollution.

Tamil Nadu (14 Sites)

Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary

A 385 sq km coastal wetland complex supporting 257 bird species including migratory waterbirds and threatened varieties like the vulnerable spoon-billed sandpiper. It also provides habitat for nesting fish and shellfish, supporting local fishing livelihoods.

Karikili Bird Sanctuary

58 hectares of protected inland wetland habitat for resident waterbirds and marsh species in Kancheepuram district, also acting as a pollution buffer.

Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest – A 12.48 sq km freshwater marsh in Chennai city supporting nearly 150 bird species. Faces risks from urban encroachment.

Pichavaram Mangrove Forest

1400+ hectares of coastal mangrove wetland habitat sustaining hundreds of aquatic and terrestrial species. Faces threats from port expansions and pollution.

Vellode Bird Sanctuary

A 0.77 sq km man-made wetland providing vital habitat for resident and visiting native bird species in Erode district.

Udhayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary

A 0.44 sq km wetland network serving as critical habitat for nesting and roosting waterbirds in Thiruvarur district.

Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary

One of India’s oldest bird sanctuaries at 0.4 sq km, hosting major seasonal bird congregations across 130 species.

Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuary

It is a man-made wetland, located in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. It is the largest reserve for migratory water birds and breeding resident in south India. Paddy is also irrigated in the sanctuary, on 190 acres area.

Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex

A 0.94 sq km wetland complex providing key migratory habitat for darters, herons, storks and other waterbirds.

Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary

A 1+ sq km man-made wetland habitat adjoining Vaduvur dam, serving as temporary seasonal habitat for pelicans, storks and other waterbirds.

Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary

A 1 sq km wetland sanctuary network hosting ideal breeding habitat for resident waterbirds and migratory species in Tuticorin.

Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary

A 2.6 sq km man-made wetland refuge enabling threatened migratory birds access to protected habitat for breeding in Tamil Nadu.

Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve

527 sq km coastal wetland region sustaining over 3600 marine species including endangered turtles, dolphins and more.

Vembannur Wetland Complex

A 0.2 sq km man-made wetland transforming into seasonal inland waterbird habitat. Faces mining contamination threats.

Tripura (1 Site)

Rudrasagar Lake (Tripura)

Rudrasagar is a 2.4 sq km lowland lake situated in Tripura’s northeast hilly terrain, replenished by monsoon rains. It provides key habitat for many fish species, waterbirds and the endangered three-striped roofed turtle. Local livelihoods depend considerably on its fisheries and irrigation supply. Deforestation and conversion for agriculture pose siltation threats to this culturally significant site.

Uttar Pradesh (10 Sites)

Bakhira Sanctuary

At 28.94 sq km, Bakhira constitutes the largest natural floodplain wetland in India. Established in 1980 within Sant Kabir Nagar district, it provides safe seasonal habitat for numerous migratory birds traveling the Central Asian Flyway. Additional conservation efforts are needed to expand habitat protection against threats from land use changes.

Haiderpur wetland

Haiderpur wetland is located near the Bijnor Ganga Barrage within the Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttar Pradesh. This large human-made wetland was formed in 1984 after the construction of the Madhya Ganga Barrage. It covers 6,908 hectares across the Muzaffarnagar and Bijnor districts, fed by the Ganges and Solani rivers. The wetland is an important stopover site for winter migratory birds along the Central Asian Flyway.

Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary

A 2.25 sq km shallow freshwater marshland and bird sanctuary near Lucknow reliant on monsoon rains and canal water. Over 25,000 waterbirds representing 220 species visit annually, including threatened species like the endangered Egyptian vulture. Protection efforts have expanded wildlife, but invasive species pose risks.

Parvati Arga Bird Sanctuary

This 7.22 sq km habitat comprised of two permanent oxbow lakes provides wetland refuge. Over 100,000 visiting waterbirds have been recorded across 187 documented species. Critically endangered and endangered vulture species have been spotted here. Invasive plant encroachment, infrastructure development and droughts endanger its ecology.

Saman Bird Sanctuary

Saman is a 5.26 sq km seasonal wetland lake typical of the Gangetic Plains, heavily reliant on annual monsoon rains. Over 50,000 waterbirds representing 187 species visit annually, including vulnerable species like the sarus crane. The sanctuary provides economic benefits through livestock fodder supply and supports tourism. Drought and drainage pose habitat threats requiring conservation focus.

Samaspur Bird Sanctuary

An 8 sq km permanent wetland basin comprising six lakes that flood during monsoons. Over 75,000 birds across more than 250 species inhabit the sanctuary, including vulnerable and endangered species. Forty-six fish species migrate here for spawning. While supporting wetland ecosystems, over 40% of surveyed plants are invasive. Expanding settlements and water salinity threaten its ecology.

Sandi Bird Sanctuary

A seasonal 3 sq km freshwater marsh hosting over 40,000 waterfowl yearly. Though small, it is critical refuge for vulnerable and threatened migratory birds, safeguarding habitat despite drought periods. Invasive species removal and grassland management are continual challenges, as deterioration threatens collapse of populations as happened before 2015.

Sarsai Nawar Jheel

Sarsai Nawar is a 1.61 sq km permanent wetland marsh hosting the largest regional flock of vulnerable sarus cranes at 400 individuals, giving rise to its name (“sarus crane lake”). Providing habitat for over 50 bird species, this religiously important site relies solely on monsoon rains. Increasing drought incidence puts its biodiversity and wetland ecology at risk.

Sur Sarovar

Also called Keetham Lake, Sur Sarovar is a 4.31 sq km shallow wetland originally built to supply the city of Agra. Soon becoming an essential ecosystem, it provides refuge to resident and migratory birds and 60 fish species. Threatened birds like the vulnerable greater spotted eagle use it as migratory stopover habitat. Facing threats from factors like drought and drainage, it sees large visitor numbers for tourism.

Upper Ganga River

This 265.9 km shallow, intermittent river stretch of the Ganges provides important habitat for endangered Ganges River dolphins, gharials, turtles and 82 fish species. Its islands and pools harbor threatened floral species like sandalwood. The site has religious significance as it is used for rituals and bathing by devotees. Major concerns comprise escalating pollution levels from agricultural runoff and sewage.

Uttarakhand (1 Site)

Asan Barrage

Asan Conservation Reserve centers around a 4.44 sq km dammed stretch of the Asan River near Dehradun district. The wetland basin harbors 330 bird species including threatened and endangered species. The barrage produces hydropower benefiting the region while maintaining critical hydrological balance. Factors necessitating stewardship include managing upstream deforestation and agricultural runoff.

West Bengal (2 Sites)

East Kolkata Wetlands

A 125 sq km wetland using resource recovery systems developed by local people to treat Kolkata city’s wastewater. The wetland provides 150 tons of vegetables and over 10,000 tons of fish yearly, supporting over 100,000 livelihoods. This ecological process avoids costs for the city to build treatment plants. Concerns are unauthorized industrial waste threatening water quality.

Sundarban Wetland

Within the Sundarban mangrove forests, this 4,230 sq km wetland encompasses a delta maze of hundreds of islands and rivers. Designated a Ramsar Site in 2019, the mangroves are key storm barriers for the region. They provide nursery habitat for coastal fisheries, and sustain resources harvested by local communities like fish, wood and honey.

Oldest Ramsar Sites

  • Keoladeo Ghana National Park: Designated in 1981.
  • Chilka Lake: Designated in 1981.

Largest Ramsar Sites

  • Sundarban Wetland: Covers 4,230 square kilometers in West Bengal.
  • Vembanad-Kol Wetland: Encompasses 1,512.5 square kilometers in Kerala.
  • Chilika Lake: Spreads over 1,165 square kilometers in Odisha.
  • Satkosia Gorge: Extends across 981.97 square kilometers in Odisha.
  • Kolleru Lake: Encompasses 901 square kilometers in Andhra Pradesh.

Smallest Ramsar Sites

  • Vembannur Wetland Complex: Covers 0.2 square kilometers in Tamil Nadu.
  • Renuka Lake: Spans 0.2 square kilometers in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary: Extends over 0.4 square kilometers in Tamil Nadu.
  • Nanda Lake: Covers 0.42 square kilometers in Goa.
  • Udhayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary: Encompasses 0.44 square kilometers in Tamil Nadu.

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