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                                                                                                                                                                                                  This is a dynamic E-Book comprising the below UPSC Mains Model Questions as well as their answers written by GKToday team. The PDF E-Book can be instantly downloaded after payment. No Hadcopy is provided.
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. In recent years, the problem of call drops in the country has deteriorated. Consumers complain that even after paying for a service, why they should be denied of reasonable call quality? Discuss the reasons and suggest policy solution in this direction.
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. "TV Whitespace technology seems to be cost-effective technology to provide broadband service in rural India."Explain.
                                                                                                                                                                                                3. What is Cold Atom Laboratory? Discuss its role and
                                                                                                                                                                                                4. To what extent, the discovery of so called "Neutrino Oscillation"has potential to change our understanding of the fundamental particles of the nature? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                5. Critically examine the role of Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet in Post-Jasmine Revolution phase.
                                                                                                                                                                                                6. Extraction of mineral resources from celestial bodies is a contentious issue at the international level. Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                7. While elucidating India's policy on Outer space mining, examine the implications of recently signed US Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act.
                                                                                                                                                                                                8. How IRNSS is different from other satellite navigation systems around the world? Objectively discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                9. What is Aditya-L1 mission? Discuss its objectives and importance.
                                                                                                                                                                                                10. What are the advantages and limitations of Li-FI over Wi-Fi? While throwing light on its functioning, discuss the main challenges in conversion of existing devices into Li-Fi enabled ones.
                                                                                                                                                                                                11. What do you understand by Optogenetics? Discuss its applications in healthcare.
                                                                                                                                                                                                12. Discuss the strategic advantages offered to India by the recently set up Data Reception and Tracking and Telemetry Station in Vietnam.
                                                                                                                                                                                                13. While giving an account of spatial pattern of 'semiconductor industry' around the world, discuss its key features that make it unique in global economy.
                                                                                                                                                                                                14. What do you understand by "Glacier mass balance"? While elucidating the factors that affect the Glacier mass balance, discuss its implications for geography and environment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                15. In recent times, ISRO has become a role model for a plethora of other public sector agencies which suffer from severe challenges in terms of capacity and execution. What are the factors behind ISRO's high performance? What are the lessons the other public sector organisations should learn from ISRO? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                16. What is the so called missile programme of North Korea? While explaining the international concerns regarding its recent missile launch using solid fuel technology, discuss reactions of the international community regarding the same.
                                                                                                                                                                                                17. "India's defence budget suffers from not only under-allocation but also under-utilization." Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                18. What do you understand by "Data Science" and "Big Data"? Discuss while analyzing their potential in changing the way politics and governance is conducted.
                                                                                                                                                                                                19. Explain the cashless transaction mechanisms by (1) Bharat QR Code (2) UPI based banking applications.
                                                                                                                                                                                                20. Discuss the key aspects of current debate on reconstituting / restructuring India's higher defence organization.
                                                                                                                                                                                                21. The Bhim Aadhaar Pay system allows money transfers using biometrics even without phones. How does it work? What are main advantages of this payment system?
                                                                                                                                                                                                22. The Artificial Intelligence (AI) is increasingly being seen as a new factor of production in recent times. What are the credentials of AI which make it suitable as a new factor of production apart from land, labour and capital? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                23. Differentiate between biologics, biosimilars and generics.
                                                                                                                                                                                                24. What do you understand by cognitive computing? How can cognitive computing help human thinking and decision-making process?
                                                                                                                                                                                                25. In recent years, there has been a spurt in the use of robots in manufacturing. Analyze the implications of such trends on jobs and employments.
                                                                                                                                                                                                26. Discuss the potential of digital technologies in bringing structural changes in world economy. In the light of these disruptions, do you agree with the view that reports of end of globalization are highly exaggerated? Opine.
                                                                                                                                                                                                27. While highlighting its key functions and benefits, discuss how the recently launched South Asia Geostationary Communication Satellite will touch the lives of ordinary people living in South Asia? Are there any strategic objectives for India also towards launching this satellite?
                                                                                                                                                                                                28. Bring out the key differences between two types of services -- standard positioning service and restricted service to be provided by NavIC.
                                                                                                                                                                                                29. What do you understand by the Advanced Ultra-Supercritical (AUSC) Technology? While highlighting the key features of National Mission on Advanced Ultra-Supercritical (AUSC) Technology, discuss how it can change India's energy paradigm.
                                                                                                                                                                                                30. Recently, Light and gravitational waves were detected from the same cosmic event for the first time. Discuss the significance of this discovery.
                                                                                                                                                                                                31. Can the new technologies such as blockchain be used for giving land titles to the poor? Discuss the potential of Blockchain towards better land governance and land reforms in India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                32. How does the Juno Mission of NASA help to understand the origin and evolution of Earth?
                                                                                                                                                                                                33. Stem cell therapy is gaining popularity in India to treat wide variety of medical conditions including Leukaemia, Thalassemia, damaged cornea and severe burns. Describe briefly what stem cell therapy is and what advantages it has over other treatments.
                                                                                                                                                                                                34. India has achieved remarkable success in unmanned space missions including Chandrayan and Mars Orbiter Mission, but has not ventured into manned space missions. What are the main obstacles to launch a manned space mission, both in terms of technology and logistics? Examine critically.
                                                                                                                                                                                                35. Give an account of growth and development of nuclear science and technology in India. What is advantage of fast breeder reactor programme in India?
                                                                                                                                                                                                36. With suitable examples, elucidate the role being played by and future potential of Collaborative bots (Cobots) in various sectors.
                                                                                                                                                                                                37. How the advances in Artificial Intelligence throw new challenge to the international humanitarian law? Discuss in the light of recent technological advances in defence equipment due to artificial intelligence.
                                                                                                                                                                                                38. Discuss the positive and negative effects of digital revolution on young generation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                39. What are bots? How are they capable of transforming the shape of technology? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                40. What are digital pills? How do they work?
                                                                                                                                                                                                41. What do you understand by the term "Neuroplasticity"? Examine its healing potential to mankind.
                                                                                                                                                                                                42. What is a "dark fibre"in terms of communication? Discuss the recent controversy pertaining to dark fibre, National Stock Exchange (NSE) and algorithm trading.
                                                                                                                                                                                                43. In recent years, ISRO has emerged as the front runner for global space agencies to collaborate to understand earth better. Analyze the challenges and steps needed for India to emerge as a global hub for space activities in this context. Can the commercial ventures make ISRO free of government support?
                                                                                                                                                                                                44. What are Atal Tinkering Labs (ATLs)? Discuss their potential role in promoting innovation and entrepreneurship.
                                                                                                                                                                                                45. Discuss the objectives and major achievements of Indian Science Congress Association (ISCA) since its formation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                46. Differentiate between asteroids and minor planets. While enumerating three minor planets, discuss their significance.
                                                                                                                                                                                                47. To what extent, Chandrayaan-1 and Mars Orbitter Mission have been able to achieve their stated objectives? Discuss citing their tangible achievements.
                                                                                                                                                                                                48. "Genetic sequencing is the future of medicine."Evaluate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                49. What are different types of small satellites based on their size? Discuss the multiple advantages that small satellites offer over the conventional ones.
                                                                                                                                                                                                50. Explain how DNA Profiling has revolutionized criminal investigations.
                                                                                                                                                                                                51. Elucidate the technical and ethical issues around Gene Therapy, Stem Cell Therapy and Synthetic Biology.
                                                                                                                                                                                                52. Explore the key differences between Cognitive Computing and Artificial Intelligence. Discuss the prospects and consequences of application of these technologies in manufacturing sector.
                                                                                                                                                                                                53. What are various tools and techniques deployed by ISRO for land degradation assessment in the country? Discuss the steps taken by the government in past years to combat desertification in the country.
                                                                                                                                                                                                54. What do you understand by mobile virtual network operator (MVNO)? Do you think there is a need to introduce MVNO in the Indian Telecom Market? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                55. Artificial Intelligence has the ability to remold the environment of the world in 21st century. Enumerate potential applications of Artificial Intelligence in Banking & Finance, Public Health, Governance and Education. Can AI be a threat to humanity also? Opine.
                                                                                                                                                                                                56. With increasing turbulence in global geopolitics, it is perceived that the wars in 21st century would be fought in Cyberweapons equipped with artificial intelligence. How realistic is this perception? Discuss the nature and threat of such weapons.
                                                                                                                                                                                                57. How the extremely high length-to-diameter ratio of Carbon Nanotubes makes them special material? Assess their potential applications in public health sector.
                                                                                                                                                                                                58. What are the findings of the NASA study on the Arctic permafrost?
                                                                                                                                                                                                59. Bring out the major differences between a ballistic missile and a cruise missile? Name two ballistic and two cruise missiles of India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                60. Critically analyse the key features of the Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP)-2016.
                                                                                                                                                                                                61. What are artificial moon plans of China?
                                                                                                                                                                                                62. What is a superconductor material? What are the benefits of superconductors?
                                                                                                                                                                                                63. Enumerate the key features of RISAT- 2B and discuss its significance towards India�s space programme.
                                                                                                                                                                                                64. Discuss in brief the importance of Mission Gaganyaan for a country like India.
                                                                                                                                                                                                65. China has finally laid down the Gene Editing Rules. What is the significance of the same?
                                                                                                                                                                                                66. What in your opinion is the significance of Mission Shakti?
                                                                                                                                                                                                67. What in your opinion is the significance of the discovery of remnants of Ice-age seawater?
                                                                                                                                                                                                68. What is International Space Station? Why is the Space Station important?
                                                                                                                                                                                                69. Discuss the significance of NASA�s InSight Mission. Why knowing about the surface of Mars has become so much important in recent years?
                                                                                                                                                                                                70. Enumerate the features of Chandrayaan 2 in detail along with the challenges it will have to face.
                                                                                                                                                                                                71. Do you think Chandrayaan-2 mission will offer better insights than the first one?
                                                                                                                                                                                                72. What are your views about the recently announced plans by India to establish a space station?
                                                                                                                                                                                                73. The increasing use of Artificial technology to imitate the voices of people and also manipulate the appearance also rise doubts about its potential mis-use. Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                74. Do you think the idea of Indian Space Station will be a futile exercise especially as it has to master a lot of expertise which is needed to ensure human viability in space?
                                                                                                                                                                                                75. Analyse various crypto currencies, their uses and concerns over their regulation and issues associated.
                                                                                                                                                                                                76. Analyze the concerns related with the concept of Data localization. What importance does it hold in context of Indian society?
                                                                                                                                                                                                77. ISRO should also involve private sector to join in building the proposed space station. Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                78. LESA or Lunar Evacuation System Assembly is a system to rescue astronauts in case of injury on lunar surface. Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                79. Do you think that the government needs to assist the telecom sector for facilitation of 5G roll-out? Comment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                80. Enumerate the concerns behind the use of e-cigarettes. What will be the impacts of recent ban on use of e-cigarettes in India?
                                                                                                                                                                                                81. Discuss the significance of GSLV in space research.
                                                                                                                                                                                                82. Determine the utility of Direct To Home in broadcasting system.
                                                                                                                                                                                                83. What is a cryogenic engine? Discuss its significance in India’s space programme.
                                                                                                                                                                                                84. What are stem cells? Why have they been in the news recently? Discuss.
                                                                                                                                                                                                85. What is fibre optics? What advantages does it offer in telecommunications? Elaborate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                86. Hydrogen Cell Technology & Its Significance
                                                                                                                                                                                                87. Coping with Digital Markets
                                                                                                                                                                                                88. Telecom Industry : Adoption of 5G
                                                                                                                                                                                                89. RFID Technology & its Applications
                                                                                                                                                                                                90. Improving India's Science & Engineering research capacity
                                                                                                                                                                                                91. Relevance of Space Force
                                                                                                                                                                                                92. Domestic internet and Data
                                                                                                                                                                                                93. ISRO Successfully Launches 13 US Nano Satellites With CARTOSAT-3
                                                                                                                                                                                                94. The Hera Mission
                                                                                                                                                                                                95. Indian Neutrino Observatory Greenlit Despite Protests
                                                                                                                                                                                                96. To what extent, the Frontier Technologies Cloud Innovation Center (CIC) set up by NITI Aayog can address societal challenges? Examine critically.
                                                                                                                                                                                                97. Disclaimer: These questions have been written and answered by GKToday team over the period of time; and have included some previous years questions also. While every effort was made to ensure that these questions as well as their answers remain relevent and correct, it is possible, that some facts or context in some questions might have changed over time. GKToday does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any party for any loss, damage, or disruption caused by such change of facts or context in the questions and answers of this E-book.

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