Heart Failure Subtypes

Heart failure is a complex condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide. In a recent study published in The Lancet Digital Health journal, researchers have made a significant breakthrough by utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) tools to identify five distinct subtypes of heart failure. This groundbreaking research has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the disease, improve patient care, and guide the development of targeted therapies.

Identifying the Subtypes

The study analyzed detailed anonymized patient data from individuals diagnosed with heart failure in the United Kingdom over a span of 20 years. Using four different machine learning methods (K-means, hierarchical, K-Medoids, and mixture model clustering), researchers successfully identified five distinct subtypes of heart failure. These subtypes are early onset, late onset, atrial fibrillation-related, metabolic, and cardiometabolic.

Similarities and Mortality Risks

Among the identified subtypes, late onset and cardiometabolic subtypes were found to be the most similar. Each subtype exhibited varying risks of all-cause mortality at one year. The risks were as follows: early onset (20%), late onset (46%), atrial fibrillation-related (61%), metabolic (11%), and cardiometabolic (37%). This information can assist healthcare professionals in understanding the prognosis and developing tailored treatment plans for patients based on their specific heart failure subtype.

The Role of the App

To facilitate the practical application of these findings, the researchers developed an app that can be used by clinicians. This app enables the identification of the cluster to which a particular patient belongs, along with their predicted survival. Clinicians who were interviewed expressed their belief that the app is feasible for use in routine care consultations. They emphasized its potential to enhance treatment effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, although further prospective studies are required to validate these benefits.



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