Upstream, Downstream and Midstream in Petroleum Industry
The petroleum industry can be divided into three parts viz. upstream, midstream and downstream. Upstream refers to searching for and the recovery and production of crude oil and natural gas. The upstream industry is also known as Exploration & Production (E&P) sector. The downstream sector refers to refining of the crude oil and selling distribution of natural gas and products derived from the crude oil. The products are LPG, Gasolene, Jet Fuel, Petroleum coke, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubber, plastics, antifreeze, pesticides , Pharmaceuticals and synthetic fibers. Midstream refers to the transport of the Petroleum products is done mainly by pipelines globally. Midstream involves transport of the crude oil to refinery and refined products to the consumers.