Quiz 622: General Science for All Examinations

1. The Science of using mechanical devices with human muscle skeleton and nervous systems to assist or enhance motor control lost by trauma, disease or defect is called:
[A]Gerontechnology
[B]Biomechatronics
[C]Orthotics
[D]Bionics

Option [B]
Biomechatronics is an applied interdisciplinary science that aims to integrate mechanical elements, electronics and parts of biological organisms. Biomechatronics includes the aspects of biology, mechanics, and electronics. It also encompasses the fields of robotics and neuroscience. The goal of this science is to make devices that interact with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems. The end result is that the devices will help with human motor control that was lost or impaired by trauma, disease or birth defects.


2. Consider the following regarding the differences between ‘holography’ and ‘photography’:
1.When a photograph is cut in half, each piece shows half of the scene. When a hologram is cut in half, the whole scene can still be seen in each piece.
2.A lens is required in photography to record the image, whereas in holography, the light from the object is scattered directly onto the recording medium.
Select the statement(s) which is/are correct?
[A]Only 1
[B]Only 2
[C]Both 1 and 2
[D]Neither 1 nor 2

Both 1 and 2


3. Which of the following artificial sweeteners is not broken down by the body and therefore it is non-caloric (no-calorie sweetener) :
[A]Aspartame
[B]Saccharin
[C]Sucralose
[D]Cyclamate

Option [C]
Sucralose is an artificial sweetener. The majority of ingested sucralose is not broken down by the body and therefore it is non-caloric. Sucralose is approximately 600 times as sweet as sucrose (table sugar), twice as sweet as saccharin, and 3 times as sweet as aspartame. It is stable under heat and over a broad range of pH conditions. Therefore, it can be used in baking or in products that require a longer shelf life. The commercial success of sucralose-based products stems from its favorable comparison to other low-calorie sweeteners in terms of taste, stability, and safety.It is used because it is a no-calorie sweetener, and does not promote dental cavities, is safe for consumption by diabetics, and does not affect insulin levels.


4. Which of the following statements is not true regarding LASER?
[A]A LASER is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification .
[B]LASER beams can be focused to very tiny spots, achieving a very high irradiance.
[C]The emitted LASER light is notable for its high degree of dispersive power unattainable using other technologies.
[D]LASER light is used in bar-code scanners.

Option [C]
The emitted laser light is notable for its high degree of spatial and temporal coherence, unattainable using other technologies. (Hence Statement c. is not
true)


5. Which of the following tests is used for the diagnosis of ‘Colour-Blindness’ in people ?
[A]Ishihara Test
[B]Widal Test
[C]ELISA test
[D]Rorschach test

Ishihara Test


6. Which of the following statement(s) is/are correct about Ultrasonic Waves/Ultrasound?
1.Ultrasonic waves find application in range-finding using RADAR.
2.Like bats and dogs, dolphins and whales can also hear ultrasound produced by ultrasonic waves.
3.The most well known application of ultrasound is its use in sonography to produce pictures of fetuses in the human womb.
[A]Only 1
[B]Only 3
[C]Both 2 and 3
[D]All of them

Both 2 and 3
A common use of ultrasound is in range finding; this use is also called SONAR (sound navigation and ranging). An ultrasonic pulse is generated in a particular direction. If there is an object in the path of this pulse, part or all of the pulse will be reflected back to the transmitter as an echo and can be detected through the receiver path. By measuring the difference in time between the pulse being transmitted and the echo being received, it is possible to determine how far away the object is. (Hence Statement 1. is incorrect)


7. The optical phenomenon of ‘total internal reflection’ finds application in:
1.Endoscopy for examination of visceral organs.
2.Optical fibers used in telecommunications
3.Prismatic binoculars
[A]1 and 2
[B]1 and 3
[C]2 and 3
[D]1, 2 and 3

1, 2 and 3


8. Crystals of which of the following naturally-occuring substance exhibits both ‘pyroelectric’ and ‘piezoelectric’ properties making it versatile for application in the field of electronics?
[A]Quartz
[B]Mica
[C]Topaz
[D]Graphite

Option [A]
Quartz crystals have piezoelectric properties: they develop an electric potential upon the application of mechanical stress. An early use of this property of quartz crystals was in phonograph pickups. A common piezoelectric use of quartz today is as a crystal oscillator. The quartz clock is a familiar device using the mineral. Quartz is also strongly pyroelectric. Temperature changes create positive and negative charges within the crystal.


9. The television technology in which a new form of light-emitting crystals which can be printed onto flexible plastic sheets to produce a paper-thin display that can be rolled up and carried in a pocket is:
[A]QD-TV
[B]SED-TV
[C]Pixel Plus
[D]Slingbox

QD-TV
Researchers have developed a new form of light-emitting crystals, known as quantum dots(QD), which can be used to produce ultra-thin televisions. The tiny crystals, which are 100,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair, can be printed onto flexible plastic sheets to produce a paper-thin display that can be easily carried around, or even onto wallpaper to create giant room-size screens. Shortages of rare earth elements needed in these displays have driven up production costs, driving electronics firms to look for new ways of making them. Quantum dots are made from cheaper semi-conducting materials that emit light when energised by electricity or ultraviolet light.


10. Consider the following regarding the malarial parasite:
1.It is a prokaryotic protist of genus ‘Plasmodium’ transmitted by female Anopheles Mosquito.
2.After entering the body, it multiplies within the Red Blood Cells(RBCs) of humans and causes symptoms of Malaria after destroying the RBCs.
Select the statement(s) which is/are incorrect?
[A]Only 1
[B]Only 2
[C]Both 1 and 2
[D]Neither 1 nor 2

Only 2


11. Consider the following statements regarding cholesterol:
1.Cholesterol is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes.
2.It is an important component for the synthesis of vitamin D.
3.It is formed in the the liver, converted to bile, which is then stored in the gallbladder.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are true?
[A]Only 1
[B]Only 2
[C]1 and 2
[D]1, 2 and 3

1, 2 and 3


12. Which of the following statements regarding the clotting of blood in humans are correct ?
1. Heparin, produced by liver prevents blood from clotting inside the body.
2. Vitamin K helps in blood clotting.
3. Chelating Agents such as Sodium/Potassium Oxalate are used in blood banks to prevent clotting.
4. Thalassemia is the condition where human blood takes abnormally long time to clot.
[A]1, 2 & 4
[B]1, 3 & 4
[C]1, 2 & 3
[D]2, 3 & 4

1, 2 & 3


13. Consider the following Statements :
1. The most common blood group is O(+)
2. The rarest Blood Group is AB(-)
3. O(-) group is the universal donor.
4. AB(+) group is the universal recipient.
Which of the above Statement(s) is/are correct?
[A]Only 3
[B]1 and 3
[C]2, 3 and 4
[D]All of them

All of them


14. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding the Vitamin C?
[A]Only Vitamin C is to be taken externally, all others are produced in the human body.
[B]Vitamin C is the only vitamin which is also a hormone.
[C]Scurvy is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin C.
[D]Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin.

Vitamin C is the only vitamin which is also a hormone.


15. ‘Apharadin-TM’ is a recently introduced drug (in September,2011) for the people with advanced stage of :
[A]Prostate Cancer
[B]Leukemia
[C]Parkinson’s disease
[D]Tuberculosis

Prostate Cancer

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