Explain the terms, subsistence farming, commercial farming, Extensive farming, Intensive farming, Plantation farming and Mixed farming.
In subsistence farming, farming is done in small scale level to meet the own consumption level’s of the producer. Usually fragmented lands are used for cultivation and archaic techniques of cultivation is adopted.
In commercial farming, farming takes place at a larger scale with the aim of generating maximum revenue by producing maximum output. To facilitate this, various means are adopted such as usage of modern tools and inputs, farm mechanization, HYV & hybrid seeds, scientific irrigation methods, fortified fertilizer combinations etc.
Extensive farming is possible only in rural areas where large scale agricultural land is available for cultivation. This type of cultivation is common in UP, Punjab and Haryana. In this type of farming, Productivity per hectare land will be very low.
Intensive cultivation as adopted in areas where agricultural land may be scarce such as hinterland or sub urban areas. In these zones, rigorous cultivation is practiced with the aim of utilizing the available land to the fullest.
Plantation Farming is done mostly practiced in large estates where single type of cash crops are grown for commercial production – eg Tea, banana, rubber, etc
Mixed farming is a joint farming system of cultivating crops and rearing domestic animals at the same time. Mixed farming is considered to be an economically better option also providing leverage against crop failure.