Prehistoric Sites of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan


Kara Kamar

Kara Kamar is an upper Palaeolithic site in Afghanistan excavated by Carleton Coon in 1954. It was first site in South Asia whose artefacts were dated by carbon dating. It is a rock-shelter site located within the northernmost folds of the Hindu Kush Mountains. The tools obtained in this site are at least 34000 years old.

Mundigak & Deh Morsai Ghundai

Urbanization began in Afghanistan around 3000 BC. Deh Morsai Ghundai and Mundigak are one of the oldest urban centers of Afghanistan.


Riwat / Rawat

Riwat or Rawat in Punjab, Pakistan provides evidences of the earliest Homo occupation outside Africa and dates back to 1.9 million years ago. The site was discovered in 1983. The artefacts found at the site consist of flakes and cores made on quartzite. The artefacts found here belong to lower to upper Palaeolithic period (about 45000 years ago).

Soan Valley

Soan River is a tributary of Indus the name of this culture is after Soan Valley. Soan Culture (also known as Soanian / Sohan culture) are Palaeolithic sites, located in Shivalik region of current India, Pakistan and Nepal.


Mehrgarh is most important Neolithic site about which we have already discussed. Mehrgarh has given oldest evidence in human history for the drilling of teeth in a living person.

Amri Culture

Amri is located in Sindh of Pakistan. This is a pre-Harappan site and a loosely defined cultural assemblage.

Other sites of Pakistan

Other prehistoric sites of Pakistan include Timargarh, Rana Ghundai, Anjira, Ghaligai Cave, Ghumla etc.

Jammu & Kashmir


Burzahom in Kashmir was a Neolithic as well as Megalithic site. The early phase is known for coarse pottery, mud plastered pit dwellings and stone tools. Later phase shows house constructed on ground. The dead were buried, sometimes with domesticated and wild animals.


Gufkral is another Neolithic site which has given evidence of Pit dwellings.

Other sites of Kashmir

Pahalgam in Kashmir valley has provided important Mesolithic as well as Neolithic sites.  Further, two important Neolithic sites of Ladakh are Giak & Kiari.

Uttar Pradesh

Belan Valley

Belan Valley in Uttar Pradesh near Prayag in Uttar Pradesh is one site where evidences of Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic sites have been found in sequence. The prehistoric sites of Belan valley include Mahgara, Chopani Mando, and Koldihwa. Koldihwa in Belan valley has provided earliest evidence of rice cultivation.

Madhya Pradesh


Adamgarh Hills are located 2 km southeast to the Hoshangabad city in Madhya Pradesh. These hills are famous for its pre-historic rock shelters, paintings and Stone age artifacts. The earliest evidence of domestication of animals has been provided by Adamgarh.


Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh are site of rock-shelters belonging to Paleolithic age, Mesolithic age as well as Neolithic / Chalcolithic age. It exhibits the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent and evidence of Stone Age starting at the site in Acheulian.


Navdatoli is a Chalcolithic era settlement located on the Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh. Navdatoli has given evidence of largest variety of food grains in the Chalcolithic age.


Kaytha (also spelled Kayatha) is located in Ujjain District of Madhya Pradesh on the bank of Kali Sindh river. It is an important Chalcolithic site and has given its name to the Kayatha Culture of Chalcolithic era.


The Neolithic sites in Odisha include Kuchai in Mayurbhanj district, and the recently excavated site of Golbai Sasan on the banks of Mandakini River.



Jorwe in Ahmednagar of Maharashtra is a Chalcolithic site after which the Jorwe Culture has been named.


Inamgaon in Maharashtra is located near Ghod river and is one of the most intensively and extensively excavated and well reconstructed Chalcolithic sites of the Deccan region as well as of India so far. The sites belong to Jorwe Culture. Inamgaon has shown evidence of an irrigation canal and an embankment.


Prakasha in Namburdar district of Maharashtra is a Chalcolithic site of Jorwe Culture.


Daimabad in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra is one of the most important prehistoric sites of India. This site has provided evidences of five distinct Chalcolithic phases viz. Savalda culture (before c.2300/2200 BCE), Late Harappan culture (c.2300/2200-1800 BCE), Daimabad culture (c.1800-1600 BCE), Malwa culture (c.1600-1400 BCE) as well as Jorwe culture (c.1400-1000 BCE).


Gilund (Ahar-Banas Culture)

Banas culture (2600BC–1900 BC) in south-east Rajasthan is one of the most important prehistoric sites in Rajasthan with Gilund as its key-sites. The various sites near Ahar river and Banas river make the so called Ahar-Banas complex. Most sites in these range from Chalcolithic, pre-Harappan to Harappan culture. The people of Gilund appear to be fully familiar with the kiln-burnt bricks.

Various sites on Luni River

Various places on banks of Luni River such as Sar, Khairala etc. provide ample evidences of stone tool making industry of Palaeolithic, Mesolithic as well as Neolithic period.  This is sometimes called Luni industry.


Balathal in southeast Rajasthan shows evidence of protohistoric occupation from the closing centuries of the 4th millennium BC.



Lingsugur in Raichur district, Karnataka was the first site from where Indian Prehistory was rediscovered. In 1842, Dr. Primrose found a Neolithic hand axe and some other tools here.


Sanganakallu is an ancient village settlement from the Neolithic period located in Karnataka.



Utnur is an important Neolithic site located in Adilabad district of Telangana. Ash-mounds, which mystified archeologists, have been discovered at Utnur.

Tamil Nadu


This is located near Chennai and is the site where Robert Bruce Foot discovered the so called Madrasian Culture.

Teri Sites
Teri sites are group of 11 sites n the Tinnevelly district of Tamil Nadu. They are associated with dunes of reddened sand. These Teri sites are belongs to Mesolithic period.


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