"Shershah Suri had laid the foundation of administration on which Akbar raised the superstructure."Explain.
Shershah is known to have made a systematic survey and measurement of the entire cultivable land of his empire using a unit called Sikandari Gaj. He introduced the so called Patta and Kabuliyat (or Qabuliyat) system of landdeeds. Under Patta system, the area sown, types of crops cultivated and revenue share was duly written on paper. The Qabuliyat system involved a deed agreement between the peasant and the government. Shershah had also established the per Bigha land (Rai) for the lands under continuous cultivation (Polaj) and the lands which kept out of cultivation temporarily (Parauti). Rai was average of three rates representing good, middle and low yields. Shershah also introduced direct remittances of the taxes to the government so that the taxpayers are saved from any exploitation by the middle officers.
All the above work done by Shershah Suri can be easily reflected in Akbar’s land revenue system. For example-Akbar used the Rai system, where dues of peasants was fixed crop wise on the basis of the productivity of the land.He used the land classification method of Shershah Suri under his Zabti system. Furthermore, the same officer Raja Todarmal earlier under the master Shershah Suri, who later carried out most reforms under Akbar, brought many similarities in administrative system. Thus, the land revenue system of Akbar was neither an innovation nor an invention. He followed the policy of Shershah with greater precision and correctness and then extended it to various subah or provinces of his empire.
Topics: 073 - Land Reforms in India
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