Elucidate the locational aspects of cotton textile industry around the World.
Geographically, the cotton textile industry is fairly widespread in the world. However, the largest concentrations are in US, India, China, Russia, Japan, Pakistan, France and UK. Other important producers of cotton textiles are Germany, Poland, Italy, Romania, Hong Kong and Czechoslovakia. The Major Cotton Producers are as follows:
Cotton textile industry in the US owes its origin to two factors, (a) the accumulation of capital, and (b) the local market. The first successful cotton mill of US was started in Rhodes Island. The industry in US is localised in three major regions in the eastern section of the country:
- New England
- the Middle Atlantic States
- the southern states
India is today the second largest producer of cotton textiles. The favourable factors for cotton textile industry in India are (i) availability of raw material, (ii) ease of importing machinery from abroad, (iii) a vast domestic market, and (iv) cheap supply of skilled manpower. Availability of coal has not played any role in deciding the location of cotton textile industry in India. As the industry in India was initially export oriented (exporting yarn to European textile manufacturing industry), the port city of Mumbai and the nearby cities of Ahmadabad, Vadodara and Bharuch developed as the major centres in the early phase of development of this industry.
Cotton textile industry in Russia, one of the leading producers, witnessed spectacular growth after 1948. Before the Soviet Revolution, the Central Region (Moscow and Ivanovo) accounted for 85% of the production of cotton textiles, Leningrad region for 8% and the northern Caucasian region for 5%. In the recent years, this industry has made spectacular progress in Ural region, western Siberia (Omsk, Novosibirsk and Barnaul) and eastern Siberia (Krasnoyarsk, Kanak, Tulun and Chita).
UK has been one of the leading producers of cotton textiles but she no longer dominates the world as it earlier did. The British cotton textile industry is localised in Lancashire and Manchester-90% of the total cotton spindles and looms being located in Lancashire region alone. These areas enjoyed the highly developed and cheap transport system, local availability of coal and proximity to the centres of manufacture of cotton textile machinery. China
China ranks among the leading cotton textile producers in the world today. Here like India, cotton textile industry is both cottage as well as factory industry.
Japan is also one of the important producers of cotton textiles. The main geographical factors helping the growth of cotton textile industry here are: (i) suitable climate, (ii) water power, (iii) transport facilities, (iv) the proximity to the large markets of southeast Asia, (v) abundant and cheap manpower, and (vi) efficient organisation. Japan also has the advantage of easy access to the world markets by means of cheap water transport. The cotton textile industry of Japan is concentrated chiefly in the industrial belt on the inland sea. The chief centres are Osaka, Kobe, Tokyo, Nagoya, Wakayama and Hiroshing. The Japanese industry like that of UK, flourishes mainly on exports. Around 30% of the production finds its way into the international market.