When and under what circumstances are special damages awarded by the court?

[Law of Torts] –  Apart from general damages for injury to reputation, special damages in the strict sense of the term may be awarded, if expressly claimed in respect of and material or temporal injury proved to have been suffered as the natural result of the defamatory publication complained of  (i) special damage in the loss of some material or temporal advantage, (ii)  pecuniary or capable of being estimated in money, which flows directly and in the ordinary course of things, (iv) from the act of the defendant or an act for which his responsible.