Fight against climate change in French Constitution

The French President Emmanuel Macron recently announced a referendum to add the fight against climate change into the French Constitution. Also, the need to preserve the environment is to be added.

What is a Referendum?

It is a general vote by the electorate on a political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision. The referendum is passed only if it is approved by a majority of the voters across a country. If the referendum includes majority of the voters in majority of the states then it is called double majority.

Referendum in France

The concept of Referendum existed in France since the French Revolution. According to 1958 French Constitution, the referendum can be organised in several situations such as constitutional revision, passage of law and entry of a state into the European Union.

There are two types of referendums in France. They are legislative referendum and national level referendum. The referendum allows only two types of responses namely ‘yes’ or ‘no’.

NDCs of France

The French Government submitted its Nationally Determined Contributions together with the European Union. The NDCs of the European Union are as follows

  • To cut the Green House Gas emissions by 40% by 2030
  • To cut Green House Gas emissions by 75% by 2050


  • The French Government recently acknowledged that it has not done enough to be in line with the climate related commitments to curb the global warming. France is already missing its national targets that were set under the 2015 Paris Agreement.
  • The European Union has set its target of reducing the greenhouse gases from 40% to at least 55% as compared to 1990 levels.
  • The US President elect Joe Biden has pledged to re-join the Paris Agreement on the first day of his Presidency.




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