History : Compendium-2

Here are a few Indian History Questions for students preparing for SSC CGL examinations of 2016 and 2017.

What is Sangam Literature?

Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the 6th century to 3rd century BC. This is a collection of poems written by 473 poets out of whom some 102 are anonymous. The period during which these poems were written is commonly referred to as the Sangam period, referring to the prevalent Sangam legends claiming literary academies lasting thousands of years, giving the name to the corpus of literature. Sangam literature contains mainly the everyday themes in a Tamil context.

What was “Jital” in Medieval India?

Akbar , the Great deserves the credit for the excellence of his extremely varied coinage. Jital was a coin as a unit carried the lowest value. The name ” Jital ” was taken from small copper coins current in North West Frontier at that time.

Who propounded “Theory of Economic Drain”?

Theory of economic drain was propounded by Dadabhai Naoroji . This theory reveals the real harm done by British Rule to India’s Economy. The basic of the theory is that India became impoverished during the British Rule mainly because of draining away of cash and other valuable resources to United Kingdom. This drain subsequently produced a negative multiplier effect in reducing investment, income, employment, and output in India in all sectors, especially in the rural sector.

What was “Practice of Sijda”?

Practice of Sijda is associated with Balban. Balban assumed the throne of Delhi in 1266 AD. This was an starting of era of a strong, centralized governments. Balban believed in the power of Monarchy and wanted to centralize all the power within the hands of the King. So he harkened back to Iranian theory of Kingship according to which , King was divine or more precisely semi divine and answerable to God and not to any set of Intermediaries or religious figures or novels. He underlined that Sultan was shadow of God ( Zil-i-allah) and anyone had to perform Sijda or prostration , which anybody could do in front of God only.

What were ” Karoris” at the time of Akbar?

Akbar had appointed officials called Karoris all over north India. They were responsible for collections of revenue with a target of a crore “Dams” . They were also responsible to check the facts and figures supplied by the qunangoes regarding land revenue. Click here to know more about Karori system.

What were Ala-ud-din’s series of regulations to prevent the nobles from conspiring against him?

  • Nobles were forbidden from making marriage alliances among them without Sultan’s permission.
  • They were forbidden to hold banquets and festivities,
  • They were forbidden to use wine and intoxicants in the festivities arranged by Nobles.

What was Day of Deliverance celebrated by Muslim League?

During the Indian Independence movement, Muslim League President Muhammad Ali Jinnah declared 1939-12-22 a “Day of Deliverance” for Indian Muslims. The day was to celebrate the resignation of all members of the rival Congress party from provincial and central offices in protest for not being consulted over the decision to enter the Second World War with Britain.

What is “Turning the Wheel of Law?

Buddha’s First sermon is often referred as turning the wheel of law or Dharmachakra or Dhammachakra (in Pali). However all of Buddha’s Teachings are Dhammachakra Parivartan or turning the wheel of law. It is represented by a Ratha Chakra or Chariot Wheel, with eight spokes. Dhammachakra is recognized by all Buddhists all over world. The shape of circle represents perfection of Budhha’s teachings, hub represents discipline, rim represents Samadhi or holding everything together.

What was Ryotwari system?

The ryotwari system was introduced by Shershah Suri and later during East India Company regime by Tomas Munroe and was related to collection of revenues from the cultivators of agricultural land. These revenues included undifferentiated land taxes and rents, collected simultaneously. Where the land revenue was imposed directly on the ryots — the individual cultivators who actually worked the land — the system of assessment was known as ryotwari. It was different from Zamindari.
Where the land revenue was imposed indirectly — through agreements made with Zamindars — the system of assessment was known as zamindari. In Bombay, Madras, Assam and Burma the Zamindar usually did not have a position as a middleman between the government and the farmer.
The starting of ryotwari system is associated with the name of Sir Thomas Munro, who was appointed Governor of Madras in may 1820.. Subsequently, the ryotwari system was extended to the Mumbai area. Munro gradually reduced the rate of taxation from one half to one third of the gross produce, even then an excessive tax. The levy was not based on actual revenues from the produce of the land, but instead on an estimate of the potential of the soil; in some cases more than 50% of the gross revenue was demanded. Click here to read more about Ryotwari System.