Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is Government of India’s flagship programme for achievement of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time bound manner. The scheme was started in 2001 by Atal Bihari Vajpayee government after modifying existing schemes such as District Primary Education Programme (DPEP). The programme got legal and constitutional backing after 86th amendment, which made free and compulsory Education to the Children of 6-14 years age group, a Fundamental Right. SSA is being implemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the entire country.

Salient Features

This scheme seeks universalization of elementary schooling and 100% retention rate in elementary schools.

  • It seeks to open new schools in those habitations which do not have schooling facilities and strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional class rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants.
  • Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additional teachers, while the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive training, grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic support structure at a cluster, block and district level.
  • SSA seeks to provide quality elementary education including life skills. SSA has a special focus on girl’s education and children with special needs.
  • SSA also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide.

The SSA covers all districts in the country in order to ensure access, retention and quality improvement in elementary education.

Recent Initiatives under SSA

Padhe Bharat-Badhe Bharat

Padhe Bharat-Badhe Bharat was launched in 2014 with a twin track approach focussing on language and math as follows:

  • Early Reading and Writing with Comprehension (ERWC): To improve language development by creating an enduring interest in reading and writing with comprehension
  • Early Mathematics (EM): To create a natural and positive interest in mathematics related to their physical and social world.

Thus, this programme seeks to improve reading, writing and math skills of children.

ShaGun Portal

In January, 2017 the government launched a dedicated web portal ShaGun for monitoring the progress of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA).  The portal was developed by World Bank in collaboration with Union Ministry of Human Resource Development. Its name has been derived from the words Shala (means schools) and Gun (i.e. Gunvatta meaning Quality).

ShaGun portal was developed with a twin track approach to monitor schools under the SSA and also the quality of education imparted by them.

  • It will capture and showcase innovations and progress in Elementary Education sector of India by continuous monitoring SSA.
  • ShaGun will help in monitoring progress in implementation of SSA by assessing the performance of states/UTs on key parameters that will help Government to plan and deliver quality education to all.

It will collect and report data to enable the government and administrators to track the efficiency with which SSA funds are being utilised and the results are been delivered.


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  • sudha


  • ravi

    Extremely useful and neatly arranged information. Many many thanks to you !

  • raj

    more important article