In 1998, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), together with the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) drew attention to the possibility of the impacts of trans-boundary air pollution in South Asia. This initiative led to the adoption of the Malé Declaration on Control and Prevention of Air Pollution and Its Likely Transboundary Effects for South Asia (Malé Declaration).
The Malé Declaration’s objective is to aid the process of providing a clean environment through clean air. The Declaration calls for regional cooperation to address the increasing threat of transboundary air pollution and its possible impacts. Its implementation has been carried out in phases.
The eight member countries of Malé Declaration include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Country governments nominated the National Focal Points (NFPs) and the National Implementing Agencies (NIAs) for its implementation.
The Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) provided funding to the Malé Declaration from 1999 to 2013. The Twelfth Session of the Intergovernmental Meeting of the Malé Declaration held in June 2011, agreed on sustainable financial mechanism, in accordance with the UN scale based-burden sharing.
During the last 17 years of implementation, network of policy makers and stakeholders has been established, monitoring and impact assessment have been carried out, completed several impact assessment studies and communicated to policy makers and stakeholders, and initiated policy measures to control emissions of air pollutants. Coordination of the programme is facilitated by the Secretariat at the Regional Resource Centre for Asia Pacific (RRC. AP), Asian Institute of Technology, located in Pathumthani, Thailand.