Annual Health Survey: Some states showed improvement
As per the second update of the Annual Health Survey (AHS), all major health indicators in the country’s worst-performing States are showing a gradual improvement over the years but inter-State variations persist.
About 2nd update of Annual Health Survey (AHS)
- Objective: To monitor the performance and outcome of various health interventions of the Government including those under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) at closer intervals through benchmark indicators
- In 284 districts of nine states survey was conducted.
- States: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Assam.
- These states account for about 48 % of the total population in the country.
Highlights of the Annual Health Survey (AHS)
(a)Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and Crude Death Rate (CDR):-
- Minimum CBR: Bageshwar (14.7) in Uttarakhand.
- Maximum CBR: Shrawasti (40.9) in Uttar Pradesh.
- CBR in rural areas of districts is higher than that in urban areas.
- Minimum CDR: Dhemaji (4.5) in Assam.
- Low female death rates have also been observed as compared to male death rates.
(b)Infant Mortality Rate (IMR):-
- Minimum IMR: Rudraprayag (19) in Uttarkhand.
- Maximum IMR: Shrawasti (103) in Uttar Pradesh.
- Districts achieved the MDG -4 National target of 28 by 2015: Purbi Singhbhum & Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and Chamoli, Rudraprayag, Pithoragarh & Almora (Uttarakhand).
- Four districts viz. Bokaro & Ranchi (Jharkhand) and Bageshwar & Nainital (Uttarakhand) are in closer vicinity to achieve the MDG-4 National target.
- IMR in rural areas of districts is significantly higher than that in urban areas.
(c)Neo-Natal Mortality Rate (NNMR):-
- Minimum NNMR: Rudraprayag (11), Uttarkhand.
- Maximum NNMR: Balangir (75) in Odisha.
- Rural NNMR in districts is significantly higher than the urban.
(d)Under Five Mortality Rate (U5MR):-
- Minimum U5MR: Pithoragarh district (24), Uttarakhand.
- Maximun U5MR: Kandhmal district (145), Odisha.
- Districts achieved the MDG -4 National target of 42 by 2015: Pithoragarh, Almora, Rudraprayag, Chamoli, Nainital & Bagheswar (Uttarakhand) and Purbi Singhbhum (Jharkhand).
- 10 districts viz. Dhanbad, Bokaro, Kodarma, Hazaribagh & Giridih (Jharkhand) and Kota (Rajasthan) and Champawat, Udham Singh Nagar, Dehradun & Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand) are in closer vicinity to achieve the MDG-4 National target.
- Rural U5MR in districts is significantly higher than the urban.
(e) Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR):-
- Minimum MMR: Kumaon HQ (183) in Uttarakhand.
- Maximum MMR: Faizabad Mandal (451) in UP.
(f) Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB)
- Minimum SRB: Pithoragarh district (764), Uttarakhand.
- Maximum SRB: Moradabad district (1034), Uttar Pradesh.
- Crude Birth Rate (CBR) denotes live births per 1000 population and Crude Death Rate (CDR) denotes number of deaths per 1000 population.
- Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) denotes the number of infant deaths (age below one year) per 1000 live births.
- Neo-Natal Mortality Rate (NNMR) measures the number of infant deaths (age below 29 days) per 1,000 live births.
- Under Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) denotes the number of children who died before reaching their fifth birthday per 1,000 live births.
- Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) measures the proportion of maternal deaths per 1,00,000 live births.
- Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) defined as the number of female live births per 1,000 male live births.
Outcome of the survey: These indicators would provide requisite inputs for better planning of health programmes and pave the way for evidence based intervention strategies.