Write briefly about Article 51-A of the Indian Constitution
The Constitution (Forty Second) Amendment Act, 1976, breaks new ground by introducing the innovative concept of Fundamental Duties of the Indian citizens in the Constitution. For this purpose, a new part IV A consisting of Article 51 A has been added to the Constitution. Article 51 A lays down the following ten fundamental duties:-
(a) To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India ; (d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to so ;
(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India diversities ; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women ;
(f) to value and preserve the right heritage of our composite culture ;
(g) to protect and improve the natural to have compassion for living creature ;
(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform
(i) to safeguard public property and to adjure violence ;
(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievements.
Article 51 A refers only to the Indian citizens unlike some Fundamental Rights, e.g., Articles 14 or 21, which apply to all persons whether citizens or non-citizens.