What are the main features of Palladian Style and Victorian Gothic Style? Give some examples of monuments built in these styles in India.
When the British became a power, there were three styles prevalent in England-the Palladian, Baroque and the Victorian. The Palladian style of architecture is based on the works of Andrea Palladio (17th century) of Italy. It could be identified with a few features such as the ceilings as an ornamental focus, mouldings often featuring masks, terms and shells or other depictions of nature, fireplaces and wall painting. A great central tower rising from a succession of traced roofs is one important characteristic of this style. The another important feature is Palladian window, which consists of a central section with semicircular arch over and two sections on either sides, all supported by pillars, as shown in the adjacent image. This was a feature inculcated in India in some buildings (in Lucknow for example).
The Victorian Gothic Style
When, India saw the emergence of presidencies of Madras, Bombay and Bengal, the fashion in England was of Gothic revival and neoclassical architecture. At the same time, the Victorian style was also in vogue. So, in the years to come, the buildings and monuments saw a mix of Indian (Mughal) style, Victorian, Gothic, Palladian, Baroque and other styles.
The Victorian Gothic Architecture thus, was basically a hotch-potch of early European styles mixed with the introduction of Middle East and Asian influences.
The Victoria terminus station (Now the Chhatrapati Shivaji Station), in Mumbai, is one of the examples of Victorian gothic revival architecture in India. The Victorian Gothic buildings in India represented the British imperial wishes to perpetuate the memory of Queen Victoria.
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