What are Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)? Discuss the prospects and challenges of adoption of this technology in India.

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have both internal combustion engine as well as an electric motor. These vehicles use rechargeable batteries to power an electric motor and use another fuel such as methanol or diesel to power an international combustion engine.

  • Compared to conventional vehicles, Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) consume lesser fuel and have higher contribution in reducing the carbon-dioxide emission.
  • Reduce the need for establishing higher number of charging stations as well as fuel stations
  • The lifecycle costs for PHEVs are much lower than either hydrogen fuel-cell or internal combustion engines
  • Investments in PHEVs can prove highly beneficial for the Indian automobile manufacturers. It will boost domestic manufacturing industry and generate employment opportunities.


  • Generates need for regular power supply and adequate number of charging stations for recharging batteries
  • Require technological advancement to reduce the cost
  • Due to differing technology, PHEVs require different maintenance procedure
  • Since there is no commercial production of lithium batteries in India, India has to depend on China and South American countries for its import.
  • Lithium ion batteries require continuous monitoring to prevent it from overcharging or discharging too much.
  • Government will need to offer tax holidays to manufacturers and cut taxes for stimulating the production and sale of PHEVs


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