The skill India mission of the government of India faces a 3E challenge, Education, Employment & Employability. Discuss and suggest measures to overcome these challenges.

Indian population has the advantage of being one of the youngest in the world. The focus on skilling the young Indian population began with a structural policy change with the Skill India mission in 2016.

3E challenge:

  1. Education:
  • With an approximately 75% literacy rate, which is heavily skewed against women; India still needs to work on universal compulsory education.
  • India’s GER (Gross Enrolment Ratio) in higher education is far behind various countries in South East Asia.
  • The infrastructural deficit in terms of research initiatives, higher education colleges, the presence of regional disparities, etc.
  • Commercialization of education.
  • Large disparities in the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) sector based on gender.


  • Correct the industry-education mismatch.
  • Timely implementation of national education policy.
  • Increase focus on vocational education.
  • The focus should also shift towards imparting Industrial Training and Skills.
  • Focus on tribal education and women in STEM should increase.
  • Use of technology and digital tools to make education more accessible.


  1. Employment:
  • The heavy dependence of India’s population on agriculture.
  • Mismatch in the number of educated youth produced and demand in the market.
  • Large informal sector and decreasing formal education.
  • Gender and caste disparities.


  • Increasing India’s manufacturing base to increase employment opportunities.
  • Providing flexibility to industries to employees on various lines.


  1. Employability
  • A public labour force survey indicates that, out of all those employed, only 14% have received some kind of training.
  • Lack of skills in educated youth.
  • The curriculum of colleges is such that it does not provide employability.
  • Mismatch in input and output of education in terms of Knowledge and human resource.


  • Emphasize on training programs.
  • Skilling should be more focused.
  • Industry-led education curriculum.
  • More internship and apprenticeship programs.

Various efforts like the skill India mission, startup India project, PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana, NEP and focus on vocational training, etc are steps in the right direction. It is necessary to implement these policies on grassroot level to make education more inclusive, accessible, and industry-oriented.


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