“The political competition between the Congress and Muslim League; and the British role led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan.” In the light of the above statement, discuss various consequences of the partition of India.

Partition of India resulted in one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfers of human population that history has known. 14.5 million people crossed the borders to what they hoped was the relatively safer country for them. Its various consequences were as follows:

Communal Riots

Various estimates say that between 2 to 10 Lakh people were ruthlessly butchered on both the sides. There were killings and atrocities on both sides of the border. Cities like Lahore, Amritsar and Kolkata became divided into “communal zones”.

Refugee Problems

Minorities on both sides of the border fled their homes and often secured temporary shelter in “refugee camps”. Thousands of woman were abducted on both sides of the border. In many cases women were killed by their own family members to preserve the “family honour”. Many children were separated from their parents. Many could not manage to cross the border and found that they had no home. For many, life was now meaning to live in refugee camps.

Administrative and Financial constraints

Ironically, the partition was not only the division of properties, liabilities and assets or a political division of the country but also division of financial assets and liabilities. But neither Pakistan nor India was ready to handle such as massive transfer of population.


Although Pakistan was formed on the ground of religion but in India, partition had also created severe conflict between Hindus and Muslims.


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