The local voluntary organizations and NGOs have played an active role in environmental movements in India. They have their own set of advantages and challenges associated with them. Elaborate.

NGOs and local voluntary organizations are entities, whose primary motive is social welfare & these don’t have direct stakeholding by the government. They work in a variety of fields.


  • Non-bureaucratic attitude.
  • Supplement to government efforts.
  • Effective check on government apathy.
  • Functions as whistle blowers.
  • Better at mobilizing funds & resources.
  • Attract international attention.
  • Help deepening of inclusive growth & welfare state.


  • Financial control to be monitored via FCRA, 2007 Act.
  • Some engage in detrimental activities.
  • Susceptible to lobbies and may have vested interests.

NGOs in environment sector:

  • Narmada Bachao Andolan led by Medha Patkar.
  • NGO Sweta has done work in taking help of Baiga tribe to protect forests of central India.
  • NGO Greenspace is against coal projects displacing tribals & deforestation, though some say it is working at behalf of renewable lobby.

Way forward:

We must recognize role of the NGOs and provide them all opportunities to do better. Thus, changes in FCRA laws are need of the hour.


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