The India as we see today is a result of centuries of migration. In this context, highlight the role of migration in shaping India’s socio-economic structure.

Dr. B.R. Ambedkar has described “India as a nation is always on churn”. People in India have migrated from one place to another from time immemorial. One can find Punjabi speaking native making biryani in Hyderabad and another can find dal bati churma in different reaches of Meghalaya and Mizoram.

Various factors responsible for migration:

  1. Pull factor –
    • Better job opportunities.
    • Better education.
    • New Horizons and entrepreneurship environment.
    • Marriages (concept of patrilocality and neolocality).
    • Better labour and daily wages.
  2. Push factor –
    • Poverty, nutrition, sanitation, etc.
    • Violence ridden surroundings.
    • Dwindling resources, obsolete industries.
    • Growing population and resource crunch.

Thus, India as we see today is culmination of various factors that have led to migration from one place to another, which ultimately shaped idea of India.

  1. Socially –
    • Society is more or less becoming cosmopolitan in nature.
    • Migration due to marriage has led to marriage of two regions, cultures and traditions.
    • Inter-caste, inter-religion marriages have made idea of India secular in colour.

However few concepts like son of soil doctrine, protectionism in terms of Marathi first, reservation for domestic quota, are roadblocks in realising idea of India.

  1. Economically –
    • Better utilisation of resources and capabilities, division of labour, proper human resource redistribution.
    • Spreading of Footloose Industries, traditional crafts throughout the nation has increased disposable income and found new markets.

Economic survey points out that migration although helped in better condition for many. However, roadblocks in terms of health, nutrition and food security still persists. All India PDS system is welcome step in this regard.


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