The cotton textile industry in India has been localized to certain regions. Giving a brief account of its distribution, identify the factors behind it.
The cotton textile industry is one of the traditional industries of India. It is the second largest employer and its contribution to GDP is around 2%. The industry is located in traditional centers and market-based centers.
- Important centers are Mumbai, Surat, Kanpur, Murshidabad, Saharanpur, etc.
- Mumbai-Ahmedabad-Pune region is one of the traditional centers of the cotton textile industry because of several factors, like
- During the British period, cotton used to be brought to Mumbai for exports, being a port city.
- As it is the financial capital of India, so availability of capital and technology in British India, was one of the primary reasons.
- Moist conditions are favorable for the strength of fibre.
- The climate of Mumbai is suitable for cotton wear.
- The black soil of the Maharashtra region is best for cotton cultivation
Thus, initially, it was located in and around Mumbai. The first textile mill in India was opened in Mumbai in the 1850s. Later, with similar conditions and easy & cheap availability of land, labour, and technology, it shifted to Ahmedabad, Surat, Pune, and adjoining areas. Presently, the cotton textile industry is shifting to Andhra Pradesh region because of similar conditions.