India has used various developmental interventions to find a resolution for several existing and protracted internal conflicts that India is plagued with since independence. But they have proved to be insufficient in tacking the issues in a reasonable time frame. Discuss.
India is a diverse and multi-cultural country, with coexistence of various religions, cultures, ethnicities & languages. This may give rise to internal security threats at times, as seen in case of Tamil Sri Lankan & Naxal conflicts.
Existing and Protracted internal conflicts:
- Communalization, e.g. Babri Masjid issue
- Law & order problems, e.g. Mob-lynching
- Insurgency along border areas
- Demands for regional autonomy, e.g. Nagaland
Developmental interventions for conflict resolution:
- Reduce regional disparities for balanced economic growth, e.g. Chhatisgarh and Jharkhand creation to pacify demands.
- Reduced alienation among remote & excluded regions, e.g. Aspirational districts programme in naxal districts.
- Investments in health & education infrastructure – informed citizenary, reduced radicalization, e.g. Interventions in Manipur & Meghalaya.
- Socio-Economic development – Restoration of social contract & trust in government.
Development interventions alone however cannot play a defining role, as:
- It is time consuming process with high gestation period for results.
- Advanced nature of threats to internal security.
- Violent approaches by insurgents.
- Disruption of developmental infrastructure, as in Naxal areas.
- Greater and effective decentralization of powers, e.g. 5th and 6th schedule of constitution, PESA Act – to make them stakeholders in growth process.
- Security interventions to re-establish law & order and governance deficit.
- Policing models based on community participation, e.g. community policy in Meghalaya.
- Upgraded border security infrastructure, e.g. drones, smart walls, CBMS, against newer forms of threat.
- Investment in technological upgradation to prevent damage to security personnel.
A judicious mix of soft & hard measures, based on community trust is needed for resolution of conflicts, both current and protracted.