In view of the recent geopolitical tensions, how can India ensure its energy security? What are the challenges presented by these geo-political tensions? Suggest a way forward.


India is dependent on imports for majority of its fuel supply. The ongoing geopolitical tensions around the world, including Russia-Ukraine war, tensions among gulf nations, have severely impacted India’s energy security.

Geopolitical dynamics:

  • Due to the Covid-19 epidemic, major oil-producing nations drastically reduced oil output. 
  • The supply routes have been hampered by the Russian-Ukrainian war. Additionally, the US’s sanctions against Russia, Iran, and Venezuela have decreased the availability of petroleum on the world market, which has caused price increases. 
  • Early in October 2022, OPEC decided to reduce oil supply in order to raise prices.
  • UAE, another significant oil producer, had drone assaults in January on oil installations. 
  • An outage on a major oil pipeline linking Saudi Arabia and Turkey exacerbated the situation.

Impact on India:

  • Energy security of India is threatened because of sanctions on Iran & Russia.
  • The increase in oil prices are increasing the country’s import bill, and further increasing its current account deficit.
  • The increase in crude prices could also further increase inflationary pressures that have been building up over the past few months.
  • Fiscal Health will be negatively impacted.

Way forward:

  • Diversifying India’s energy basket.
  • Increasing reliance on sustainable energy resources like solar, wind, etc.
  • Increasing production of biofuels like compressed biogas, bio-ethanol.
  • Accelerating green hydrogen mission.


The current geopolitical tensions further put even more emphasis on the need to become self-sufficient for energy needs. It is crucial to become resilient of global supply chain disruptions and make India Atmanirbhar.


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