"In the 18th and 19th century's free countries of Europe and America, more and more people shifted from agriculture to industry and service. Ironically, exactly reverse happened in India."Discuss critically.
Industrial Revolution which started in Britain in early 18th century spread in major parts of Europe during the 18th and 19th century; the period during which predominantly agrarian, rural societies in Europe and America became industrial and urban. With large number of British and European colonies spread around the world and Blood-Sucking policies in foreign countries provided them with better financial and raw material availability. Further, with colonies in almost every part of the world provided them better market for selling of industrial produced goods.
On the other hand, different land reform changes made by Britishers in India, such as: high taxation system; Izaredari system and permanent settlement made the condition of peasants poor allowing maximum concentration of wealth in the hands of Britishers and few of Indians so called landlords or zamindars. This in turn destroyed the coordination between Indian Industries and Indian Agriculture and a new bond of Indian agriculture and Britain’s industry was developed which shifted the entire wealth of India to that European country. Thus, we see that in the 18th and 19th century in the free countries of Europe and America, more and more people shifted from agriculture to industry and service which brought about a greater volume and variety of factory-produced goods and raised the standard of living for many people, particularly for the middle and upper classes. On the other hand during the same period exactly reverse happened in India when peasants and zamindars tried better options for agricultural production for their sustenance in the society.
Topics: GS-III: Land Reforms in India