How Green Revolution did benefits the farmers? Discuss its drawbacks.

In the early 1960s, the Green Revolution started in India in some of the northern states. was introduced as a package program with seed-water-fertilizer-pesticide-technology components and was originally called the High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP). It was launched in Kharif of 1966-67 with an objective to attain self-sufficiency in food by 1970-71. Modern technology and High Yielding Variety seeds improved the total agricultural output.


  • The first phase of the green revolution was in operation between 1960 and 1970. In this time phase, the application of HYV seeds got an extension in the states like Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, etc. It benefited wheat production.
  • The second phase of the Green revolution was in operation between 1970 and 1980. The HYV seeds got a nationwide extension and most of the crops were benefited.

The other socio-economic benefits of the green revolution are

  • Production and Productivity were increased. Record output of 131 million tonnes was noticed in 1978.
  • Total area coverage under certain crops was increased and per unit growth also showed an increasing trend.
  • The employment generation in the agricultural sector was also increased.
  • The application of HYV seed was limited to certain states that is why other states missed the benefit of modern technology.
  • The benefit of the large farmers was higher than the small and marginal farmers.
  • Due to high yielding, the farmers realized the significance of the agricultural field.


  • The revolution was mainly confined to High Yielding Varieties (HYV) cereals, mainly rice, wheat, maize, and Jowar. It did not cover other coarse cereals, millets and neither had it covered pulses.
  • It had no substantial impact on the production of commercial crops such as sugarcane, cotton, jute, oilseeds, and potatoes until 1973-74.

The green revolution virtually bypassed the eastern region of the country.


During the initial stage, the Green Revolution did not reach all parts of India. Over a period and in different phases i.e. 1960 to 1970, 1970 to 1980, 1980 to 1995, it has spread to large parts of the nation and increased the agricultural productivity of the country.


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