How are plateaus formed? Also briefly discuss the features of the Deccan Plateau and its economic significance.
Plateau is a flat elevated landform which is higher than plains but not as high as mountains.
Formation of Plateau:
- Volcanism produces lava plateau. Ex. Deccan Plateau formation.
- Crustal shortening – thrusting of one rock on other and folding of rocks. Ex. Tibetan plateau.
- Expansion of hot material below surface leading to uplift of above surface. Ex. Abyssinian plateau.
- Plateau due to erosion of old mountains and other hilly areas.
Features of Deccan Plateau:
- Formed of basic Lava.
- Expands through Indian peninsula and covers vast amount of Indian Territory.
- Divided into various parts based on regional features.
- Black soil present.
- Huge mineral resources present in plateau region. Ex. Chhota Nagpur Plateau – coal, iron, etc.
- Black soil has water retention capacity and hence cotton is grown extensively in this region.
- Coarse grain also grown in this region.
- Presence of various industries in the area.
- Rivers form fertile deltas and hence extensive agriculture taken up.
- Groundwater trapped in underlying rocks.
- Rock-cut architecture and tourist places, which attract people across world.
Deccan Plateau is one of the key areas of habitation and contributes to India’s economy.
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