Highlighting the features of equatorial climate, explain why these areas remain largely underdeveloped.
Equatorial climate, also called tropical wet climate or equatorial rainforest climate, is found mostly between 50 north and south of equator, with largest extent in Amazon, Congo, Malaysia and East Indies..
Characteristic features of equatorial climate:
- Temperature is uniform throughout the year with mean temperatures around 270
- Heavy precipitation, no winter and small diurnal & annual range of temperature.
- Rainfall distributed throughout the year and absence of any dry season.
- Vegetation is tropical rain forest and the growing season is all the year round.
- Vegetation comprises of tropical hardwoods like Mahogony, Ebony, etc.
- The canopy is thick and presence of epiphytes is a characteristic feature.
Reasons behind underdevelopment of these regions:
- Despite presence of dense forests, the commercial exploitation of timber is difficult. Many countries in these regions are net timber importer.
- Excessive heat and humidity.
- Home to tropical diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, etc.
- Presence of insects, pests make agriculture tough.
- Low fertility of soil because of leaching.
- Mineral resources are present but their extraction damages the rainforests.
These regions acts as the lungs of earth, and these areas require conservation. Because of the above difficulties present in these areas, equatorial regions remain largely underdeveloped.