Highlighting the differences between Surface Web, Deep Web and Dark Web, discuss the concerns associated with Dark Web. Also, discuss the steps taken by India in this regard.

Internet has revolutionized modern day economics and has become all pervasive. But the internet that we see and use today is much more complex and vast than that.

  • Surface web refers to the easily available part of internet, which can be reached and used by ordinary individuals. It is analogous to an iceberg which remains only 10% above the surface.
  • Much of the internet is not accessible through normal IP protocols and remains hidden in the form of deep web. It requires differentiated infrastructure and protocols for access.
  • Dark web is that part of internet which is in the deep web but it operates oblivious and antithetically to scrutiny of government and law enforcement.

Concerns with Dark Web:

  • Cesspool of terrorism and illegal activities like smuggling and terror financing.
  • Threat to cyber security and critical infrastructure.
  • Lack of government scrutiny.
  • Ineffectiveness of international cooperation in nabbing the accused.
  • Element of anonymity to perpetuator.

Steps taken by India:

  • National cyber security policy 2013.
  • National centre for coordination against cyber crime.
  • Indian cyber crime coordination centre to counter dark web.
  • International cooperation on financial intelligence through FATF, FIU-IND.
  • CISC provision in critical government infrastructure.
  • Holistic intelligence framework against terrorism comprising of NATGRID, IB, NIA, etc.

A vigilant and proactive legislature and regulatory framework against dark web is the need of the hour.


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