Highlight the importance of new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence since twenties of last century.
The history of the Indian National Movement can be separated in different phases starting from the political upliftment in 1885 when Congress was established. Later the partition of Bengal in 1905, the Swadeshi movement in 1906. Gandhiji’s entry into politics in 1919 and the partition in 1947.
In this time phase, India witnessed several reforms through the introduction of Morley Minto reform, Montague Chelmsford reform, the Government of India act, etc.
- Gandhiji tried to uplift the scheduled castes and tribes. B.R. Ambedkar established an institution named Bahishkrit Hitakarini Sabha in 1924 to nullify the problems of the untouchables and address their grievances before the government. E. V. Ramasamy started the Self-Respect Movement in 1925.
- During the time of the khilafat movement, Hindu Muslim unity was noticed and women also participated. Md. Ali Jinnah was the representative of the Muslim in the later phase. In 1928, the Nehru report was published that intended to provide voting rights and equal fundamental rights to both men and women. The women were given voting rights.
- Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, Gadar Party, Swaraj Party, Krishak Praja Party, and the non-cooperation movement led by Gandhiji had become the voice of the introduction of socialistic welfare ideology & rural development.
- Champaran Satyagraha, Kheda Satyagraha, Ahmedabad mill strike, Mappila rebellion, Eka movement succeeded to fulfill the demand of the peasants and workers. The intention of the peasants was not only the eradication of the British but also the cessation of the activity of middlemen and landlords.
The first phase of the freedom movement witnessed agitation due to local demands of the peasants and the workers regarding payment, land taxes, and the nuisances of the landlords but the later part of the freedom movement witnessed mass agitation with the long term demands and reforms. It also influenced global politics. And the leadership like Mahatma Gandhi, Surendranath Banerjee, Sarojini Naidu made the agitation more rampant against the British rule with the demand for complete independence of India.