Given the nature of air pollution crisis in India, certain context-specific solutions are required to tackle it comprehensively. Discuss.

According to IQ air report 2021, 9 out of 10 most polluted cities in terms of air pollution are in India.

Nature of air pollution crisis:

  • Agricultural sector – It contributes to methane emissions from paddy farming, nitrogen oxide from fertilizers and particulate & CO2 via stubble burning.
  • Vehicles – Vehicular emission results in CO2, emission of oxides of Sulphur and nitrogen.
  • Industries are the major source of carbon dioxide, oxides of Sulphur and nitrogen.
  • Construction sector emits dust particles at large scale.
  • Thermal power plants emit huge quantities of carbon, Sulphur dioxide, and large amount of soot, fly ash.
  • Cooking – women in rural areas use traditional fuels like cow dung cake, wood, etc.

Context-specific solutions:

  • Agriculture – Adopt direct seeding method of rice cultivation to reduce methane emissions. Adopt Pusa-decomposer technology of Delhi to tackle stubble burning. Bio decomposers reduce need of stubble burning.
  • Vehicles – Promote use of electrical vehicles.
  • Improve fuels – use of BS6 fuel, CNG, green hydrogen, etc.
  • Industries and thermal power plant – Use flue-gas desulphurization for Sulphur oxides. Use selective catalytic reduction technique for nitrogen oxides.
  • Construction sector – Frame guidelines to regulate technologies used. Promote covered construction sector.
  • Electricity generation – Replace thermal power plants with solar, wind and green Hydrogen based fuels. For current power plants adopt coal gasification Technology.
  • Cooking – Promote usage of LPG and electricity induction stoves.
  • Institutional – Capacity building of newly formed Commission for Air quality in NCR, CPCB.

These measures can significantly cut down air pollution levels in India.

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