What were the major points of difference between Gandhi and Jinnah during the September 1944 talks? Critically discuss the outcomes of these talks at a broader level.

Gandhiji was arrested under the Defense of India Rules during the very beginning of the Quit India movement and sent to Agakhan Palace Jail. He was released on 6 May 1944. At that time, America was also creating pressure on Britain to resolve India’s demand for self-governance. In the meantime, Gandhiji proposed talks with Md. Ali Jinnah in the context of two-nation theory and the issue of partition. The CR formula acted as a moderator of the talks. Both parties met in September 1944 with the intention of solving the deadlock. Gandhiji was satisfied with the CR formula and present it as his proposal to Jinnah. Jinnah rejected the proposal.

Reason for rejection

  • Muslims and Hindus voting would be contradictory to the basic principle of Muslims being a distinct nation.
  • Gandhiji was not happy with the separate nation theory constituted by Indian Muslims.
  • Jinnah’s intention was to include all six provinces i.e. Baluchistan, Sindh, N.W.F.P, and parts of the Punjab, Bengal, and Assam to Pakistan.
  • Jinnah did not accept the proposal of Gandhiji for the treaty of separation to provide for foreign affairs, defense, communication, customs commerce.


  • After the failure of Gandhi Jinnah talks, the British Prime Minister Atlee realized there is no other way but to grant complete independence to India.
  • The Cabinet mission came to India in 1946 to discuss the matter of transfer of powers from the British government to the Indian leadership. The objective of the cabinet mission failed due to opposition.
  • Nehru was asked to form the interim government and as a consequence, direct action day was called by the Muslim league.
  • On 2nd September 1946 interim government was formed under the leadership of Nehru.
  • Eventually, the Muslim League joined the government on 26th October.
  • Atlee declared India will be given complete independence before June 1948.
  • Partition took place after the 3rd June declaration of Lord Mountbatten.

Indian Independence Act was passed in the British parliament on 4th July 1947


Latest E-Books