Explain why the Tsarist regime was able to survive the 1905 revolution but was overthrown in February/March 1917.
From 1894 to 1917, Nicholas II was the Tsar being autocrat he failed to address many problems. With the defeat of Russia in war against Japan in 1905 there was strike and attempted revolution. The following are the reasons for which the Nicholas was able to survive the revolution of 1905:
- The opponents of Nicholas II were not united.
- Lack of leadership of the revolution as it was spontaneous.
- Russian army remained loyal to Tsar mostly.
- He promised concessions in the October Manifesto. It included granting an elected parliament (Duma), Universal Adult Suffrage, Law formation with the approval of Duma, freedom of speech, assembly and association and freedom of conscience.
The first Duma was elected in 1906 and in total 4 Duma were elected but failed and remained ineffective. Nicholas II feared the country would become democratic republic and did not allow Duma to function and he controlled the ministers and secret police. This increased unrest in Russia followed by defeat of Russia in First World War. The first revolution in February/March 1917 overthrew Tsarist regime and set up a provincial government.