Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India?

Agriculture in India has been practiced since the time of the Indus Valley Civilization. The rank of India is second in terms of the total farm output. About 50% of India’s population is associated with the agricultural sector that contributes 17% of India’s GDP. After India’s independence, several revolutions have taken place that helped the poverty alleviation program and ensures food security.


  • In the early 1960s, the Green Revolution started in India in some of the northern states. was introduced as a package program with seed-water-fertilizer-pesticide-technology components and was originally called the High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP). It was launched in Kharif of 1966-67 with an objective to attain self-sufficiency in food by 1970-71. Modern technology and High Yielding Variety seeds improved the total agricultural output.
  • The Golden revolution took place between 1991 and 2003. India became a leading producer of bananas, mangoes, coconut, and spices. Fruits, production of honey, and the horticulture sector received a boost for increasing the growth of production.
  • The Yellow Revolution started in order to boost the oilseeds production. India became self-sufficient in terms of oilseeds production after the revolution had taken place.
  • The aquaculture of India developed after the Blue Revolution.
  • The Golden Fibre Revolution increased the growth of Jute production. The processed jute helped to reduce the use of plastic that is not environment friendly.
  • In 1970, the operation flood which was a part of the White Revolution enhanced milk production in India. Presently, India ranks first in milk production, accounting for 20% of the total production in the world.


  • India became self-sufficient in terms of the production and use of several agricultural sectors.
  • The revolutions ensured income generation to the rural population of India.
  • In some of the production sectors, India became a leading exporter in the world.
  • Per capita availability of food had reached a decent figure to meet the domestic needs.

Way forward

The revolution showed a significant change in the agricultural transition of India. But with the increasing population, more reforms are needed in line with the demand of the nation. Self-sufficiency and becoming the leading exporter in the world will definitely enhance the overall economic growth of the country.


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