Explain the causes of the Indian Monsoon.
Monsoon means seasonal reversal of winds which brings rainfall due to moisturised winds passing over water bodies. Indian Monsoon is the seasonal phenomenon caused by the differences of temperature and pressure over water bodies and landmass.
In summer, the movement of the sun towards the Tropic of Cancer increases the temperature of Indian sub continental landmass, in comparison to the sea. Pressure over the landmass decreases and heavy pressured moisturised winds from the South-West sea rush towards Indian landmass, causing rainfall. It is known as the Summer Monsoon. The winter monsoon, which gives less rain than the summer monsoon, comes from North-West direction blowing towards North-East.
Other factors like EL Nino, ITCZ movement, upper atmosphere conditions, local specific conditions, tropical depression, etc. also play a role in the Indian Monsoon.