Examine the rationale behind creation of different and diverse Central Armed Police Forces for guarding international borders. Also, highlight the contribution of these forces in ensuring security of India.

Central Armed Police Forces are largely under operational control of Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). Assam Rifles is under dual control.
These forces were raised at different times, to achieve specific objectives like:

  • Addressing security concerns along Nepal border – Sashastra Seema Bal.
  • Tackling the concerns posed by China-Indo Tibetan Border Police.
  • Improving border security along Pakistan border – Border Security Force.

These forces were raised since:

  • Specially trained and equipped personnel could guard borders better.
  • Relieving burden on Army to guard borders.
  • Providing a deterrent effect against aggressive actions at the border.
  • Acting as first line of defence in case of war.

Contribution to Indian Security:

  • They have helped guard sensitive borders shared with China and Pakistan.
  • These forces have made sacrifices in line of duty, e.g. CRPF personnel martyred in Ladakh in 1959.
  • BSF has effectively countered cross border terrorism (Pakistan border) as well as drug trafficking, illegal migration and currency smuggling (Bangladesh border).
  • ITBP has deterred Chinese intrusions into Indian Territory.
  • Assam Rifles has helped curb threat posed by ULFA, National Socialist Council of Nagaland, etc.
  • During various disasters, they have been first responder.
  • The National Security Guard draws troops from CAPFs and Army. It helped quell 26/11 attacks.

CAPFs are thus indispensable for internal and external security of the nation. Strengthening them further in terms of personnel, training and jurisdiction is required.

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