Distinguish between religiousness / religiosity and communalism giving one example of how the former had got transformed into latter in independent India.

Religiosity is associated with ideology, community, doctrine, beliefs, values, practices, rituals, moral, and cultural dimensions.

Communalism is the process of constructing religious or ethnic identity. There is a presence of violence, orthodoxy, aggressive ideology, etc.

Transformation: Religiosity has been practiced since the time of ancient India but gradually it has transformed into communalism.

The Mughal era witnessed separate taxation systems like jizya and zakat for different communities.

During the time of the British rule, the partition of Bengal, divide and rule policy, separate electorate, Communal Award had provided more fuel to it.

And in recent times, the Babri Mosque demolition, each and every phase played a part in the transition.


  • Religiosity is practiced by most of the population in the world but there are some specific areas where communalism has taken possession of the podium.
  • Religiosity is a belief that is practiced in a very disciplined manner but communalism is used to fulfill a personal political desire.
  • Religiosity is shaped with an ideology but communalism always looks forward to the expansion of its grounds.
  • Religiosity never indulges violence except for the incident of animal sacrifice whereas communalism provokes riots, sedition, murder.

Comment: Communalism creates a hindrance to the development of a nation. Social, economic, cultural development, and good governance are only possible when the state will take the necessary steps to confine the activities that fuel the aggressiveness of communalism.


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