Critically evaluate the outcomes of Bonn Climate Change Conference (COP23), outlining the challenges in its effective implementation.

The Paris agreement in 2015 set out the principles to tackle climate change. Bonn summit in 2017 aimed at finalising the rule book that would enable effective implementation of the Paris deal.
Outcomes of Bonn Climate Change Conference (COP23) are:

  • In the Bonn summit, it was decided that the negotiators will keep working for one year and finalize the rule book by December 2018.
  • It gave a new platform to discuss the climate change issue called Talanoa Dialogues.
  • Conference was marked by the launch of the “Powering Past Coal Alliance”, led by the UK and Canada.
  • Developed countries have named a new sum of $60 billion for climate change mitigation.

Challenges in effective implementation
The challenges in effective implementation are:

  • Lack of basic framework for the countries to determine their contributions, timelines, and accountability in meeting the agreement
  • Reluctance of developed countries to transfer the low carbon technology to developing countries
  • United States, one of the most responsible countries for climate change pulling out of the agreement.
  • Lower environmental protection expenditures by developing countries


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