Barring few pockets, the green revolution virtually bypassed the eastern region of the country despite the fact that it has fertile soil and plenty of water. Explain.
In the early 1960s, the Green Revolution started in India in some of the northern states. was introduced as a package program with seed-water-fertilizer-pesticide-technology components and was originally called the High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP). It was launched in Kharif of 1966-67 with an objective to attain self-sufficiency in food by 1970-71. Modern technology and High Yielding Variety seeds improved the total agricultural output.
Bypassing eastern region
There are various reasons behind the bypassed the eastern region of the country despite the fact that it has fertile soil and plenty of water.
- The institutional factor is that the best performing areas under the Green Revolution were in Punjab. Though the Zamindari system was abolished, yet its influence remained in the eastern parts of India.
- About 80% of the total land holdings in Eastern India were under small and marginal landholdings. In Punjab and Haryana, the new technology was too expensive to adopt for small and marginal farmers and the cost was unaffordable for the majority of the farmers in the eastern region.
- The cropping pattern in the eastern region was dominated by rice and other low-valued crops. Rice responded late to new technology but meanwhile, the western region traveled far ahead with increased production of wheat, maize, and bajra.
- A large number of households in Bihar and Odisha were below the poverty line and the majority of the farmers practiced subsistence farming in low-value crops.
It can not be said that the Green Revolution did not reach all parts of the eastern region of India. Over a period and in different phases i.e. 1960 to 1970, 1970 to 1980, 1980 to 1995, it has spread to large parts of the nation and increased the agricultural productivity of the country.