Account for variations in oceanic salinity and discuss it's multi-dimensional effects.

Ocean salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt present in the water body of the ocean. Salts compounds present in the water are sodium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium nitrate, and sodium bicarbonate which dissolve into ions. The average salinity of the water body of the oceans is 35 parts per thousand. But due to some reason variations in the salinity has been noticed.

Possible reasons

  • Where the evaporation rate is higher, due to adverse weather conditions, global warming, and low humidity. Water salinity is low where the evaporation rate is not high.
  • where the rainfall is high, salinity is low.
  • Large river-fed oceans have low salinity.
  • Temperature directly affects the water salinity.

Multi-dimensional effects

  • The variation in water salinity causes different water density and temperature variation.
  • Thus salinity affects the circulation of ocean currents.
  • It affects climate change.
  • It directly affects the marine biodiversity and the survival of the species.


The marine ecosystem, marine organisms, circulation of oceanic currents directly or indirectly depends on the salinity of the ocean. And as a result, both the marine and terrestrial lifeforms on Earth get affected.


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