Account for the spatial pattern of the Manganese ore distribution in World and India.

Manganese is used as an alloy mineral to produce steel. Typical manganese steel contains 12 to 14 per cent of manganese and addi­tion of this mineral to steel makes it remarkably hard and tough. Thus manganese is an important input in steel manufacturing activity. Having a great affinity for oxygen, manganese never occurs in Free State.

The leading producers of manganese in the world are China, South Africa, Australia, Ukraine, Brazil, India, Russia, Ghana, Gabon, Mexico, Morocco and Zaire. The former USSR used to be the leading pro­ducer of manganese accounting for nearly 33% of the total world production. India also figures among the leading manganese producer countries of the world. Deposits of this mineral occur in widespread areas in the peninsular Plateau region. Indian deposits contain high-grade ores. The leading producer states are Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Bihar and Rajasthan. The ores occur in many areas of Brazil also and the most important areas are Minas Gerais, Baia and Urucum Hills.

Manganese due to its importance in iron and steel industry and also the fact that it generally does not occur in iron ore producing areas has considerable importance in the international trade. The leading exporters are China, Ukraine, India, Ghana and Bra­zil while the leading importers are France, US, Ger­many, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, UK and Norway. France alone buys nearly one-fourth of the total manganese entering the international market.


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