Enumerate types of clean coal technologies and the challenges associated with their adoption.

The clean coal technologies minimize the harmful effluents from coal burning like carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, heavy metals and make it comparatively less polluting for the environment.

Types of clean coal technologies:

  • Conversion to syngas – anaerobic combustion yields syngas (carbon monoxide + Hydrogen) which is a cleaner fuel.
  • Washing of coal before use – minimize effluents considerably.
  • Electrostatic precipitators – more efficient in entrapping particulate emissions (PM 2.5. PM 10).
  • Wet scrubbers.
  • Baghouse filters.


  • Need heavy R&D investments.
  • High coal dependence (~55%) for power generation. Need large amount of money to replace or modify.
  • Locally produced coal is of lower quality with high sulphur and high ash content, which causes higher pollution. Non-coking and bituminous/lignite coal instead of anthracite.
  • Lack of skilled workforce.
  • Lack of international willingness especially from developmental agencies that raise eyebrows on coal.

Clean coal technologies are required for a cleaner future and to meet net zero target by 2070.


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