Land Ceiling and Consolidation of Land Holdings in India

The land ceiling acts define the size of land that an individual/family can own. In India, by 1961-62, all the state governments have passed the land ceiling acts. But the ceiling limits varied from state to state. To bring uniformity across states, a new land ceiling policy was evolved in 1971. In 1972, national guidelines

Constitutional Provisions on Land and Land Reforms in India

The constitution of India has included the Land reform in State subjects. The Entry 18 of the State List is related to land and rights over the land. The state governments are given the power to enact laws over matters related to land. Part IV of the Directive Principles of State Policy also indirectly mandates

Difference between Land Reforms and Agrarian Reforms

Land reforms refers to a wide variety of specific programmes and measures to bring about more effective control and use of land for the benefit of the community as a whole. Land reforms generally comprise the takeover of land by state from big land lords with partial compensation and transfer it to small farmers and

Impact of British Policy on Indian Agriculture and Land

The British Era is also known as a period of commercial revolution in the agricultural sector. Commercialization of agriculture was coincident with Industrial revolution and became prominent around 1860 A.D. This brought about a change from cultivation for home consumption to cultivation for the market. Cash transactions become the basis of exchange and largely replaced

Mahalwari System

The Zamindari as well as the Ryotwari System could not fulfil the expectations of the policymakers. A third type of system called Mahalwari system was introduced in Agra, Awadh (Oudh), Central parts of India, Punjab, parts of Gangetic valley etc during regime of Lord Hastings. Mahal refers to an estate with many cultivators. The term

Ryotwari System

Ryotwari System was initially introduced by Shershah Suri. He had surveyed the entire land under cultivation of his territory and fixed per bigha due on the basis of average of three rates representing good, middle and low soils under continuous cultivation (Polaj) and temporary out of cultivation (Parauti). This average rate was called “Rai” and

Changes in Zamindari System from Mughal to British Era

During reigns of Shershah Suri and Akbar, the system was that land revenue was collected directly by the officers of the state and could be paid either in cash or in kind, though cash payments were encouraged. Thus, the peasant called ryot held his land directly  from the crown. But in the eighteenth century, with

Changes in Land Revenue System in British Era

India’s land revenue system was radically changed under British due to several factors such as agricuituralisation and de-industrialization; change in land ownership; methods of assessment; and collection of land revenue. In the 18th and 19th centuries free countries of Europe and America, more and more people shifted from agriculture to industry and service. Ironically, exactly

Critical Assessment of Akbar’s Land Revenue System

The assessment of Akbar’s land revenue system must be done on two accounts viz. annual system and Dahsala system. Annual System The annual system was another name of uncertainty in assessment and appointment of Karoris was disastrous for the peasants. The Karoris turned rapacious and system of paying previous years taxes in current years led

Land Revenue System of Akbar

There was no Mughal land revenue system before Akbar. His father Humayun and grandfather Babur did not introduce any changes because they were the first conquerors of their dynasty and remained pre-occupied with subduing rebellions, consolidating empires and maintaining order. A proper land revenue system was founded by Akbar. However, the system of Akbar was