IAS Mains (1998) General Studies Paper II

General Studies Paper – II


Time Allowed: Three
Maximum Marks : 300

Each Question is printed both in Hindi and in English.

Answer must be written in the Medium specified in the Admission Certificate
issued to you, Which must be stated clearly on the cover of the answer-book in
the space provided for the purpose.  No marks will be given for the answers
written in a medium other than that specified in the Admission Certificate.

Candidates Should attempt all Question strictly in accordance with the
instructions given under each question.

The number of Marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the




1. (a) Briefly state the stages
through which the present position of the Directive Principles vis-à-vis the
Fundamental Rights has emerged.  40

(About 250 words)   
(b) Explain the concept of ‘Prime Ministerial Government’ and account for its
decline in recent times in India.  40

(About 250 words)                         

2. (a) “The past 50 years of development in India were
characterised by planning but the next 50 years of development would be led by
the market.” Comment.  40

(About 250 words)                
(b) How is absolute poverty line measured? What are the important measures taken
by the Government to eradicate rural poverty in India?  40

(About 250 words)                  

3. (a) What is remote sensing? What are its uses especially in
the Indian context?  40

(About 250 words)                 
(b) What is genetic engineering? Why is it getting increasingly important these
days?  40   

(About 250 words)                              

4. Answer any TWO of the following :-

(Answer to each question should be in about 150 words)  20+20

(a) Highlight the significance of the Seventy-third Amendment to the
Constitution of India.

(b) How are the States formed in India? Why have the demands of separate States
like those of Vidarbha, Telangana etc. not been considered by the Government

(c) On what grounds the Legislative Councils are justified? How is it created or
abolished in a State?

(d) Differentiate and state the significance of general election, mid-term
election and by-election.

5. Answer any TWO of the following :-

(Answer to each question should be in about 150 words) 

(a) What are the main reasons for industrial sickness in India? How can it be

(b) “Infrastructure bottlenecks continue to stifle the economic growth in
India.” Comment.

(c) Comment on the view that Monetary Policy in India is used more as a
stabilisation device rather than as a development tool.

(d) What has been the role of NRIs in the economic development of India in the
recent past?

6. Answer any TWO of the following :-

(Answer to each question should be in about 150 words)  15+15

(a) What are the geo-economic causes of underdevelopment of various regions in

(b) Which parts of India have been identified as draughtprone? Mention the norms
for such identification.

(c) Describe the changes that have taken place in the direction of international
trade of India since independence.

(d) How do the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep differ in the
geological ecvolution and topographical conditions?

7. Answer any TWO of the following :-

(Answer to each question should be in about 150 words)  20+20

(a) Describe the development of Super-computers in India.

(b) How does the development of Pinaka benefit India?

(c) What are optical fibres? What are their advantages?

(d) What are enzymes? What is their importance?

8. Answer FOUR questions from Group A, THREE from Group B and
THREE from Group C :-

(Answer to each question should be in about 25 words)  10×3=30


(a) What is meant by Mutual Fund?

(b) Explain per capita income as a measure of economic growth.

(c) What is meant by ‘Quality of life’?

(d) What constitutes a Minor Irrigation Project?

(e) What is meant by Environmental Impact Assessment?

(f) What is the difference between Gross National Product and Net National

(a) What is meant by ‘Protem Speaker’?

(b) Point out the constitution and functions of the Central Vigilance

(c) State the amplitude of Art. 21 of the Constitution.

(d) Which of the cases regarding disqualifications for Membership of either
House of Parliament are decided by the President?

(e) Differentiate between Parliamentary Secretary and Lok Sabha Secretary.

(f) What is a Privilege Motion?

(a) Why are transgenic organisms important?

(b) State the importance of Antrix Corporation.

(c) Why is Website getting popular?

(d) What do the following stand for?

(i) C-CAD

(ii) ICMR

(iii) TRAI

(e) Give the functions of interferons.

(f) What is the difference between E-mail and Fax?