Treaty of Surat
Treaty of Surat 1775
Late Narayanrao’s widow, Gangabai, gave birth to a posthumous son, who was legal heir to the throne. The newborn infant was named Sawai Madhavrao. Twelve Maratha chiefs, led by Nana Phadnavis, one of the ministers of the late Narayanrao conspired to make the infant as the new Peshwa and rule under him as regents.
Since Nana Phadnavis was assisted by 11 more ministers and this conspiracy is called “Barabhai Conspiracy” or the Conspiracy of the Twelve.
But Raghunath Rao approached British to purchase their support. He signed the Treaty of Surat in March 1775.
As per this treaty, Raghunath Rao ceded the territories of Salsette and Bassein to the British, so that the British restore him to Poona.
But this treaty created confusion. The Regulating Act was in place; the Governor General in Council at Calcutta did not approve this treaty and held it invalid. They sent one representative Colonel Upton to Pune to annul this treaty and make a new treaty with the Governor General in Council at Calcutta. Raghunath Rao made another treaty but that treaty was not accepted by Nana Phadnavis and he granted a port to French. The British retaliated this with sending troops to Poona. This triggered the First Anglo Maratha War.