Second Anglo-Mysore War
Second Anglo-Mysore War 1780-1784
Prior to this war, Hyder Ali had again made a treaty with the Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad, but both of them were convinced to not to take arms again British and Hyder Ali ended fighting the war on his own. But the army of Hyder was one of the largest armies in India. In 1780, his army carefully swept down the Eastern Ghats and burnt the villages. The British could not make out due to failure of intelligence and Hyder laid the siege of Arcot. He sent his son Karim to Porto Novo. When the British Forces left Madras under the command of Hector Munro to throw out the siege, Hyder lift the siege but moved to confront them.
But then, Hyder came to know that new forces are coming from Guntur under Colonel William Baillie, so he sent a detachment under his son Tipu to intercept them. Hyder himself also led his forces to intercept Col. Braithwaite. At Pollilur, Colonel William Baillie was surrounded and was compelled to surrender. The defeat in Battle of Pollilur was the worst defeat of English in India in which the British were massacred. The siege of Arcot was renewed.
The news of the British defeat shook Warren Hastings but he sent a new force under General Eyre Coote from Bengal to take charge of British forces opposing Hyder. Eyre Coote arrived Madras take command from Munro. He marched into the Carnatic and occupied Cuddalore. At Porto Novo, the armies met and the victory was in British side. Then again new reinforcements were sent from Bengal, which Hyder tried in vain to stop. There was a fight again in Pollilur, but Hyder got defeated but the battle remained indecisive.
In summary, the second Anglo Mysore war was a prolonged war which took 4 years to conclude without victory of any side. Hyder was humbled in 4 engagements by Eyre Coote, but every time he succeeded in safely withdrawing the troops from each of the battle field. He was also able to surround the two British detachments under Col. Baille and Col. Braithwaite and destroyed them.
This prolonged war was hotly contested, for the aged Sir Eyre Coote had lost his energy, and the Mysore army was not only well disciplined and equipped, but skillfully handled by Hyder and his son Tipu. All of a sudden, Hyder died in 1782, the battle remained indecisive and peace was finally concluded with Tipu on 28 June 1784, on the basis of a mutual restitution of all conquests. This is called the “Treaty of Mangalore“.